Nobel Prize

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Har saal Nobel Prizes dher vibhag me dewa jaawe hae. Ii vibhag hae Literature, Science aur Peace. Nobel Prize ke Alfred Nobel ke baad naam dewa gais hae. Iske dunia me sab se barraa prize maana jaawe hae. Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences bhi Alfred Nobel ke yaad me dewa jjawe hae, aur kabhi kabhi iske Nobel Prize in Economics bola jaawe hae, lekin ii Nobel ke will ke hissa nai hae. Iske 1969 me Bank of Sweden suruu karis rahaa. Ii prize ke aur Nobel Prize ke ssathe dewa jaawe hae. == Prize categories and winners == === Physics me nobel prize jiite waala[1] jiske Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decide kare hae === {| class="wikitable" |- ! Year ! colspan=2|Laureate ! Des ! Rationale |- |1901 |WilhelmRöntgen.JPG |Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen |Germany |"uske ek rakam ke ray ke pawe ke khatir jiske naam uske naam dewa gais hae."[2] |- |rowspan=2|1902 |Hendrik Antoon Lorentz.jpg |Hendrik Lorentz |Netherlands |rowspan=2|" uske ii khoj ke khatir ki radiation ke uppar magnetism ke kon asar rahe hae."[3] |- |Pieter Zeeman.jpg | Pieter Zeeman | Netherlands |- |rowspan=3|1903 |Becquerel Henri photograph.jpg |Antoine Henri Becquerel | France |"uske spontaneous radioactivity ke baare me paawe ke baad"[4] |- | |Pierre Curie | France |rowspan=2|" uu logan ke Professor Henri Becquerel se pawa gais radiation phenomena ke baare me khoj "[4] |- |Mariecurie.jpg |Marie Curie | Poland / France |- |1904 |John William Strutt.jpg |John William Strutt | United Kingdom |"uske khaas gas ke uppar khoj aur uske argon ke paawe ke khatir"[5] |- |1905 |Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg |Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard | Germany |"uske cathode ray ke uppar kaam ke khaatir"[6] |- |1906 |Jj-thomson3.jpg |Joseph John Thomson | United Kingdom |" uske "conduction of electricity by gases" ke uppar ke khoj ke khatir[7] |- |1907 |Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg |Albert Abraham Michelson | United States |"uske optical precision instruments aur spectroscopic and metrological ke uppar ke khoj ke khatir"[8] |- |1908 |G lippmann.jpg |Gabriel Lippmann | France |"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[9] |- |rowspan=2|1909 |Guglielmo Marconi.jpg |Guglielmo Marconi | Italy |rowspan=2|"[for] their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[10] |- |Ferdinand Braun.jpg |Karl Ferdinand Braun | Germany |- |1910 |Johannes Diderik van der Waals.jpg |Johannes Diderik van der Waals | Netherlands |"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[11] |- |1911 |Wilhelm Wien 1911.jpg |Wilhelm Wien | Germany |"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[12] |- |1912 |Nils Gustaf Dalén.jpg |Nils Gustaf Dalén | Sweden |"for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[13] |- |1913 |Kamerlingh portret.jpg |Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes | Netherlands |"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[14] |- |1914 |Max von Laue.jpg |Max von Laue | Germany |"For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"[15], an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy. |- |rowspan=2|1915 | |William Henry Bragg | United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"[16], an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography |- |Wl-bragg.jpg |William Lawrence Bragg | United Kingdom |- |1916 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1917 |Charles Glover Barkla.jpg |Charles Glover Barkla | United Kingdom |"For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"[17], another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy |- |1918 |Max Planck (Nobel 1918).jpg |Max Planck | Germany |"[for] the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[18] |- |1919 |Johannes Stark.jpg |Johannes Stark | Germany |"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[19] |- |1920 |Guillaume 1920.jpg |Charles Édouard Guillaume | Switzerland |"[for] the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[20] |- |1921 |Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg |Albert Einstein | Germany |"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[21] |- |1922 |Niels Bohr.jpg |Niels Bohr | Denmark |"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[22] |- |1923 |Robert-millikan2.jpg |Robert Andrews Millikan | United States |"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[23] |- |1924 |75px |Manne Siegbahn | Sweden |"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[24] |- |rowspan=2|1925 |James Franck.jpg |James Franck | Germany |rowspan=2|"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[25] |- |75px |Gustav Hertz |Germany |- |1926 | |Jean Baptiste Perrin | France |"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[26] |- |rowspan=2|1927 |Arthur Holly Compton.gif |Arthur Holly Compton | United States |"for his discovery of the effect named after him"[27] |- |Charles Thomson Rees Wilson at 1927 Solvay conference.jpg |Charles Thomson Rees Wilson | United Kingdom |"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[27] |- |1928 |Niels BohrUpOwenWillansRichardsonDownSolvay1927.JPG |Owen Willans Richardson | United Kingdom |"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[28] |- |1929 |Broglie Big.jpg |Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie | France |"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[29] |- |1930 |75px |Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman |India |"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[30] |- |1931 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1932 |Werner Heisenberg at 1927 Solvay Conference.JPG |Werner Heisenberg | Germany |"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[31] |- |rowspan=2|1933 | |Erwin Schrödinger | Austria |rowspan=2|"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[32] |- |Paul Dirac, 1933.jpg |Paul Dirac | United Kingdom |- |1934 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1935 |75px |James Chadwick | United Kingdom |"for the discovery of the neutron"[33] |- |rowspan=2|1936 |Hess.jpg |Victor Francis Hess | Austria |"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[34] |- |Carl anderson.1937.jpg |Carl David Anderson | United States |"for his discovery of the positron"[34] |- |rowspan=2|1937 |Clinton Davisson.jpg |Clinton Joseph Davisson | United States |rowspan=2|"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[35] |- |George Paget Thomson.jpg |George Paget Thomson | United Kingdom |- |1938 |Enrico Fermi 1943-49.jpg |Enrico Fermi | Italy |"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[36] |- |1939 | Ernest Orlando Lawrence.jpg |Ernest Lawrence | United States |"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[37] |- |1940 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1941 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1942 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1943 |75px |Otto Stern | United States |"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[38] |- |1944 |Isidor Isaac Rabi.jpg |Isidor Isaac Rabi | United States |"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[39] |- |1945 |Wolfgang Pauli young.jpg |Wolfgang Pauli | Austria |"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[40] |- |1946 |75px |Percy Williams Bridgman | United States |"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[41] |- |1947 |EVAppleton.jpg |Edward Victor Appleton | United Kingdom |"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[42] |- |1948 |Blackett-large.jpg |Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett | United Kingdom |"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[43] |- |1949 | |Hideki Yukawa | Japan |"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[44] |- |1950 | |Cecil Frank Powell | United Kingdom |"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[45] |- |rowspan=2|1951 | |John Douglas Cockcroft | United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[46] |- | Ernest Walton.jpg |Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton | Ireland |- |rowspan=2|1952 |Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg |Felix Bloch | United States |rowspan=2|"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[47] |- |Edward Mills Purcell.jpg |Edward Mills Purcell | United States |- |1953 |Zernike.jpg |Frits Zernike | Netherlands |"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[48] |- |rowspan=2|1954 |Max Born.jpg |Max Born | United Kingdom |"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[49] |- |Bothe.jpg |Walther Bothe | West Germany |"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[49] |- |rowspan=2|1955 |Willis Lamb 1955.jpg |Willis Eugene Lamb | United States |"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[50] |- |Polykarp Kusch.jpg |Polykarp Kusch | United States |"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[50] |- |rowspan=3|1956 |Bardeen.jpg |John Bardeen | United States |rowspan=3|"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[51] |- |Brattain.jpg |Walter Houser Brattain | United States |- |William Shockley, Stanford University.jpg |William Bradford Shockley | United States |- |rowspan=2|1957 | |Tsung-Dao Lee | Republic of China |rowspan=2|"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[52] |- |CNYang.jpg |Chen Ning Yang | Republic of China |- |rowspan=3|1958 |Cerenkov.jpg |Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov | Soviet Union |rowspan=3|"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[53] |- |Ilya Frank.jpg |Il'ya Frank | Soviet Union |- | |Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm | Soviet Union |- |rowspan=2|1959 |Owen Chamberlain.jpg |Owen Chamberlain | United States |rowspan=2|"for their discovery of the antiproton"[54] |- |Segre.jpg |Emilio Gino Segrè | Italy |- |1960 |Donald Glaser.jpg |Donald Arthur Glaser | United States |"for the invention of the bubble chamber"[55] |- |rowspan=2|1961 |Robert Hofstadter.jpg |Robert Hofstadter | United States |"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[56] |- |Mossbauer.jpg |Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer | West Germany |"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[56] |- |1962 | |Lev Davidovich Landau | Soviet Union |"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[57] |- |rowspan=3|1963 |Wigner.jpg |Eugene Paul Wigner | United States |"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[58] |- ||75px |Maria Goeppert-Mayer | United States |rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[58] |- |Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen (1907–1973).jpg |J. Hans D. Jensen | West Germany |- |rowspan=3|1964 | |Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov | Soviet Union |rowspan=3|"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"[59] |- |Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg |Aleksandr Prokhorov | Soviet Union |- | |Charles Hard Townes | United States |- |rowspan=3|1965 |Richard Feynman.png |Richard Phillips Feynman | United States |rowspan=3|"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[60] |- |Schwinger.jpg |Julian Schwinger | United States |- |Tomonaga.jpg |Sin-Itiro Tomonaga | Japan |- |1966 | Kastler.jpg |Alfred Kastler | France |"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[61] |- |1967 |Hans Bethe.jpg |Hans Albrecht Bethe | United States |"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[62] |- |1968 |Luis Alvarez ID badge.png |Luis Walter Alvarez | United States |"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[63] |- |1969 |Murray Gell-Mann.jpg |Murray Gell-Mann | United States |"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[64] |- |rowspan=2|1970 |YoungAlfven.jpg |Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén | Sweden |"for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[65] |- | |Louis Néel | France |"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[65] |- |1971 | |Dennis Gabor | United Kingdom |"for his invention and development of the holographic method"[66] |- |rowspan=3|1972 |Bardeen.jpg |John Bardeen | United States |rowspan=3|"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[67] |- | |Leon Neil Cooper | United States |- | 75px |John Robert Schrieffer | United States |- |rowspan=3|1973 | |Leo Esaki | Japan |rowspan=2|"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[68] |- |Ivar Giaever.jpg |Ivar Giaever | United States
Norway |- |75px |Brian David Josephson | United Kingdom |"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[68] |- |rowspan=2|1974 | |Martin Ryle | United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[69] |- | |Antony Hewish | United Kingdom |- |rowspan=3|1975 | |Aage Bohr | Denmark |rowspan=3|"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[70] |- |Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg |Ben Roy Mottelson | Denmark |- | |Leo James Rainwater | United States |- |rowspan=2|1976 |Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg |Burton Richter | United States |rowspan=2|"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[71] |- | |Samuel Chao Chung Ting | United States |- |rowspan=3|1977 |Andersonphoto.jpg |Philip Warren Anderson | United States |rowspan=3|"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[72] |- |75px |Nevill Francis Mott | United Kingdom |- | |John Hasbrouck Van Vleck | United States |- |rowspan=3|1978 |KustodiyevSemenov Kapitsa.JPG |Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa | Soviet Union |"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[73] |- |Arno Penzias.jpg |Arno Allan Penzias | United States |rowspan=2|"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[73] |- |Wilson penzias200.jpg |Robert Woodrow Wilson | United States |- |rowspan=3|1979 |Sheldon Glashow at Harvard.jpg |Sheldon Lee Glashow | United States |rowspan=3|"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[74] |- |75px |Abdus Salam | Pakistan |- |Steven-weinberg.jpg |Steven Weinberg | United States |- |rowspan=2|1980 |James Watson Cronin 2006.jpg |James Watson Cronin | United States |rowspan=2|"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[75] |- | |Val Logsdon Fitch | United States |- |rowspan=3|1981 |Nico 2006 Tucson Wiki.png |Nicolaas Bloembergen | United States |rowspan=2|"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[76] |- |Artur Schawlow, Stanford University.jpg |Arthur Leonard Schawlow | United States |- | |Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn | Sweden |"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[76] |- |1982 | |Kenneth G. Wilson | United States |"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[77] |- |rowspan=2|1983 | |Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar | India, United States |"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[78] |- | |William Alfred Fowler | United States |"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[78] |- |rowspan=2|1984 |Carlo Rubbia W and Z bosons.jpg |Carlo Rubbia | Italy |rowspan=2|"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[79] |- | |Simon van der Meer | Netherlands |- |1985 |Klausvonklitzing.jpg |Klaus von Klitzing | West Germany |"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[80] |- |rowspan=3|1986 | |Ernst Ruska | West Germany |"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[81] |- |Gerd Binnig sw.jpg |Gerd Binnig | West Germany |rowspan=2|"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[81] |- |Rohrer.jpg |Heinrich Rohrer | Switzerland |- |rowspan=2| 1987 |Georg Bednorz speaking at the groundbreaking of the new IBM and ETH Zurich Nanotech Exploratory Technology Lab.jpg |Johannes Georg Bednorz | West Germany |rowspan=2| "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[82] |- |Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg |Karl Alexander Müller | Switzerland |- |rowspan=3|1988 |Leon M. Lederman.jpg |Leon Max Lederman | United States |rowspan=3|"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[83] |- | |Melvin Schwartz | United States |- |Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG |Jack Steinberger | United States |- |rowspan=3|1989 | |Norman Foster Ramsey | United States |"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[84] |- | |Hans Georg Dehmelt | United States |rowspan=2|"for the development of the ion trap technique"[84] |- | |Wolfgang Paul | West Germany |- |rowspan=3|1990 | |Jerome I. Friedman | United States |rowspan=3|"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[85] |- |Henry Kendall by Tom Frost.jpg |Henry Way Kendall | United States |- | |Richard E. Taylor | Canada |- |1991 |Pierre-Gilles Rice University.jpg |Pierre-Gilles de Gennes | France |"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[86] |- |1992 |CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005b.jpg |Georges Charpak | France |"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[87] |- |rowspan=2|1993 | |Russell Alan Hulse | United States |rowspan=2|"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[88] |- |2008JosephTaylorWithMarietta.jpg |Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. | United States |- |rowspan=2|1994 |Bertram Brockhouse.jpg |Bertram Brockhouse | Canada |"for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[89] |- | |Clifford Glenwood Shull | United States |"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[89] |- |rowspan=2|1995 |Martin Perl - tau.jpg |Martin Lewis Perl | United States |"for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[90] |- |Frederick Reines.jpg |Frederick Reines | United States |"for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[90] |- |rowspan=3|1996 | |David Morris Lee | United States |rowspan=3|"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[91] |- |Douglas Osheroff.jpg |Douglas D. Osheroff | United States |- |Robert Coleman Richardson.jpg |Robert Coleman Richardson | United States |- |rowspan=3|1997 |Steven Chu official portrait headshot.jpg |Steven Chu | United States |rowspan=3|"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[92] |- |Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG |Claude Cohen-Tannoudji | France |- |William Phillips-physicist photo.jpg |William Daniel Phillips | United States |- |rowspan=3|1998 |Robert Laughlin, Stanford University.jpg |Robert B. Laughlin | United States |rowspan=3|"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[93] |- |Horst Störmer.jpg |Horst Ludwig Störmer | Germany |- | |Daniel Chee Tsui | United States |- |rowspan=2|1999 |GerardtHooft.jpg |Gerardus 't Hooft | Netherlands |rowspan=2|"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[94] |- |Martinus Veltman.jpg |Martinus J. G. Veltman | Netherlands |- |rowspan=3|2000 |Zhores Alferov.jpg |Zhores Ivanovich Alferov |Russia |rowspan=2|"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[95] |- | |Herbert Kroemer | Germany |- | |Jack St. Clair Kilby | United States |"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[95] |- |rowspan=3|2001 |rowspan=2| |Eric Allin Cornell | United States |rowspan=3|"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[96] |- |Carl Edwin Wieman | United States |- |Ketterle.jpg |Wolfgang Ketterle | Germany |- |rowspan=3|2002 | |Raymond Davis, Jr. |United States |rowspan=2|"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[97] |- | |Masatoshi Koshiba | Japan |- |RiccardoGiacconi.jpg |Riccardo Giacconi | United States |"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[97] |- |rowspan=3|2003 |AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg |Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov | Russia
United States |rowspan=3|"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[98] |- |Виталий Лазаревич Гинзбург.jpg |Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg | Russia |- | |Anthony James Leggett | United Kingdom
United States |- |rowspan=3|2004 |David Gross cropped.JPG |David J. Gross | United States |rowspan=3|"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[99] |- | |H. David Politzer | United States |- |FrankStockholm2004.jpg |Frank Wilczek | United States |- |rowspan=3|2005 |Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg |Roy J. Glauber | United States |"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[100] |- | |John L. Hall | United States |rowspan=2|"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[100] |- |Theodor W Haensch.jpg |Theodor W. Hänsch | Germany |- |rowspan=2|2006 |John-C-Mather.jpg |John C. Mather | United States |rowspan=2|"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[101] |- |George Smoot.jpg |George F. Smoot | United States |- |rowspan=2|2007 |Albert Fert at EP2DS 2007 in Genua PICT5745.jpg |Albert Fert | France |rowspan=2|"for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[102] |- |Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg |Peter Grünberg | Germany |- |rowspan="3"|2008 |Mkobayashi.jpg |Makoto Kobayashi | Japan |rowspan="2"|"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[103] |- |Masukawa.jpg |Toshihide Maskawa | Japan |- |YoichiroNambu.jpg |Yoichiro Nambu | United States |"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[103] |- |rowspan="3"|2009 ||Charles K. Kao cropped 2.jpg |Charles K. Kao | Hong Kong
United Kingdom
United States |"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[104] |- |Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-23.jpg |Willard S. Boyle | Canada
United States |rowspan="2"|"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[104] |- |Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-24.jpg |George E. Smith | United States |- |rowspan="2"|2010 ||Geim.jpg |Andre Geim | Russia
Netherlands |rowspan="2"|"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[105] |- |Konstantin Novoselov at MIPT.jpg |Konstantin Novoselov | Russia
United Kingdom |} === Chemistry me Nobel prize jiite waala log(decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) === {| class="wikitable" |- !Year ! colspan=2|Laureate[A] ! Country[B] ! Rationale[C] |- |1901 |Vant Hoff.jpg |Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff |the Netherlands |"[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[106] |- |1902 | |Hermann Emil Fischer |Germany |"[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[107] |- |1903 | |Svante August Arrhenius |Sweden |"[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation"[108] |- |1904 | William Ramsay working.jpg |Sir William Ramsay |United Kingdom |"[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[109] |- |1905 | Adolf von Baeyer (Nobel 1905).jpg |Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer |Germany |"[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[110] |- |1906 | |Henri Moissan |France |"[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[111] |- |1907 | Eduardbuchner.jpg |Eduard Buchner |Germany |"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[112] |- |1908 |Ernest Rutherford2.jpg |Ernest Rutherford |United Kingdom
New Zealand |"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[113] |- |1909 | Wilhelm Ostwald.jpg |Wilhelm Ostwald |Germany |"[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"[114] |- |1910 | |Otto Wallach |Germany |"[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[115] |- |1911 |Mariecurie.jpg |Marie Curie, née Sklodowska |Poland |"[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"[116] |- |rowspan=2|1912 | |Victor Grignard |France |"for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent"[117] |- | |Paul Sabatier |France |"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals"[117] |- |1913 | |Alfred Werner |Switzerland |"[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[118] |- |1914 |Richards Theodore William lab.jpg |Theodore William Richards |United States |"[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"[119] |- |1915 |Richard Willstätter.jpg |Richard Martin Willstätter |Germany |"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[120] |- |1916 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1917 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1918 |Fritz Haber.png |Fritz Haber |Germany |"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[121] |- |1919 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1920 |Walther Nernst.jpg |Walther Hermann Nernst |Germany |"[for] his work in thermochemistry"[122] |- |1921 | |Frederick Soddy |United Kingdom |"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[123] |- |1922 | |Francis William Aston |United Kingdom |"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[124] |- |1923 |Fritz Pregl.jpg |Fritz Pregl |Austria |"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[125] |- |1924 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1925 | |Richard Adolf Zsigmondy |Germany |"for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[126] |- |1926 | |The (Theodor) Svedberg |Sweden |"for his work on disperse systems"[127] |- |1927 | |Heinrich Otto Wieland |Germany |"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[128] |- |1928 | |Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus |Germany |"[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"[129] |- |rowspan=2|1929 |rowspan=2| |Arthur Harden |United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[130] |- |Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin |Germany |- |1930 | |Hans Fischer |Germany |"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[131] |- |rowspan=2|1931 | |Carl Bosch |Germany |rowspan=2|"[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[132] |- | |Friedrich Bergius |Germany |- |1932 |Irving Langmuir.jpg |Irving Langmuir |United States |"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"[133] |- |1933 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1934 |Harold Urey.jpg |Harold Clayton Urey |United States |"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[134] |- |rowspan=2|1935 | |Frédéric Joliot |France |rowspan=2|"[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements"[135] |- | |Irene Joliot-Curie |France |- |1936 |Debye100.jpg |Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye |the Netherlands |"[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"[136] |- |rowspan=2|1937 | |Walter Norman Haworth |United Kingdom |"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[137] |- | |Paul Karrer |Switzerland |"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2" |- |1938 | |Richard Kuhn |Germany |"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[138] |- |rowspan=2|1939 | |Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt |Germany |"for his work on sex hormones"[139] |- | |Leopold Ruzicka |Switzerland |"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"[139] |- |1940 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1941 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1942 | colspan=4 align=center|Not awarded |- |1943 | George de Hevesy.jpg |George de Hevesy |Hungary |"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[140] |- |1944 | |Otto Hahn |Germany |"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[141] |- |1945 | |Artturi Ilmari Virtanen |Finland |"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[142] |- |rowspan=3|1946 | |James Batcheller Sumner |United States |"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[143] |- | |John Howard Northrop |United States |rowspan=2|"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[143] |- | |Wendell Meredith Stanley |United States |- |1947 | |Sir Robert Robinson |United Kingdom |"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[144] |- |1948 | |Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius |Sweden |"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[145] |- |1949 | |William Francis Giauque |United States |"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[146] |- |rowspan=2|1950 |rowspan=2| |Otto Paul Hermann Diels |Federal Republic of Germany |rowspan=2|"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[147] |- |Kurt Alder |Federal Republic of Germany |- |rowspan=2|1951 | |Edwin Mattison McMillan |United States |rowspan=2|"for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"[148] |- | | Glenn Theodore Seaborg |United States |- |rowspan=2|1952 |rowspan=2| |Archer John Porter Martin |United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"for their invention of partition chromatography"[149] |- |Richard Laurence Millington Synge |United Kingdom |- |1953 | |Hermann Staudinger |Federal Republic of Germany |"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[150] |- |1954 |Pauling.jpg |Linus Carl Pauling |United States |"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"[151] |- |1955 | |Vincent du Vigneaud |United States |"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[152] |- |rowspan=2|1956 |rowspan=2| |Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood |United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"[153] |- |Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov |USSR |- |1957 | |Lord (Alexander R.) Todd |United Kingdom |"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"[154] |- |1958 |Frederick Sanger2.jpg |Frederick Sanger |United Kingdom |"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[155] |- |1959 | |Jaroslav Heyrovský | Czechoslovakia |"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"[156] |- |1960 | |Willard Frank Libby |United States |"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[157] |- |1961 |Melvin Calvin.jpg |Melvin Calvin |United States |"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[158] |- |rowspan=2|1962 | |Max Ferdinand Perutz |United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[159] |- |John Cowdery Kendrew |John Cowdery Kendrew |United Kingdom |- |rowspan=2|1963 | |Karl Ziegler |Federal Republic of Germany |rowspan=2|"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[160] |- | |Giulio Natta |Italy |- |1964 | |Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin |United Kingdom |"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[161] |- |1965 | |Robert Burns Woodward |United States |"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"[162] |- |1966 | |Robert S. Mulliken |United States |"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[163] |- |rowspan=3|1967 |rowspan=3| |Manfred Eigen |Federal Republic of Germany |rowspan=3|"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"[164] |- |Ronald George Wreyford Norrish |United Kingdom |- |George Porter |United Kingdom |- |1968 | |Lars Onsager |United States |"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[165] |- |rowspan=2|1969 |rowspan=2| |Derek H. R. Barton |United Kingdom |rowspan=2|"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[166] |- |Odd Hassel |Norway |- |1970 |Luis Federico Leloir - young.jpg |Luis F. Leloir |Argentina |"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[167] |- |1971 | |Gerhard Herzberg |Canada |"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[168] |- |rowspan=3|1972 |Christian B. Anfinsen, NIH portrait, 1969.jpg |Christian B. Anfinsen |United States |"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[169] |- |rowspan=2| |Stanford Moore |United States |rowspan=2|"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[169] |- |William H. Stein |United States |- |rowspan=2|1973 | |Ernst Otto Fischer |Federal Republic of Germany |rowspan=2|"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"[170] |- | |Geoffrey Wilkinson |United Kingdom |- |1974 | |Paul J. Flory |United States |"for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"[171] |- |rowspan=2|1975 | |John Warcup Cornforth |Australia
United Kingdom |"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[172] |- | |Vladimir Prelog |Switzerland |"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[172] |- |1976 | |William N. Lipscomb |United States |"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"[173] |- |1977 | |Ilya Prigogine |Belgium |"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[174] |- |1978 | |Peter D. Mitchell |United Kingdom |"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[175] |- |rowspan=2|1979 |rowspan=2| |Herbert C. Brown |United States |rowspan=2|"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[176] |- |Georg Wittig |Federal Republic of Germany |- |rowspan=3|1980 |Paul Berg in 1980.jpg |Paul Berg |United States |"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[177] |- |Walter Gilbert |Walter Gilbert |United States |rowspan=2|"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[177] |- |Frederick Sanger |Frederick Sanger |United Kingdom |- |rowspan=2|1981 |rowspan=2| |Kenichi Fukui |Japan |rowspan=2|"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[178] |- |Roald Hoffmann |United States |- |1982 | |Aaron Klug |United Kingdom |"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[179] |- |1983 | |Henry Taube |United States |"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[180] |- |1984 |75px |Robert Bruce Merrifield |United States |"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[181] |- |rowspan=2|1985 |rowspan=2| |Herbert A. Hauptman |United States |rowspan=2|"for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[182] |- |Jerome Karle |United States |- |rowspan=3|1986 |Dudley R. Herschbach |Dudley R. Herschbach |United States |rowspan=3|"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[183] |- |rowspan=2| |Yuan T. Lee |United States |- |John C. Polanyi |Canada |- |rowspan=3|1987 | |Donald J. Cram |United States |rowspan=3|"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[184] |- |Jean-Marie Lehn |Jean-Marie Lehn |France |- | |Charles J. Pedersen |United States |- |rowspan=3|1988 | |Johann Deisenhofer |Federal Republic of Germany |rowspan=3|"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[185] |- |Robert Huber |Robert Huber |Federal Republic of Germany |- | |Hartmut Michel |Federal Republic of Germany |- |rowspan=2|1989 | |Sidney Altman |Canada
United States |rowspan=2|"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[186] |- |Thomas R. Cech |Thomas R. Cech |United States |- |1990 | |Elias James Corey |United States |"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[187] |- |1991 | |Richard R. Ernst |Switzerland |"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"[188] |- |1992 |Prof. Dr. Rudolph A. Marcus.jpg |Rudolph A. Marcus |United States |"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[189] |- |rowspan=2|1993 |rowspan=2| |Kary B. Mullis |United States |"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chaen reaction (PCR) method"[190] |- |Michael Smith |Canada |"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"[190] |- |1994 | |George A. Olah |United States |"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[191] |- |rowspan=3|1995 | |Paul J. Crutzen |the Netherlands |rowspan=3|"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[192] |- |Mario J. Molina |Mario J. Molina |United States |- |F. Sherwood Rowland.jpg |F. Sherwood Rowland |United States |- |rowspan=3|1996 | |Robert F. Curl Jr. |United States |rowspan=3|"for their discovery of fullerenes"[193] |- |Harold Kroto |Sir Harold W. Kroto |United Kingdom |- | |Richard E. Smalley |United States |- |rowspan=3|1997 |rowspan=3| |Paul D. Boyer |United States |rowspan=2|"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[194] |- |John E. Walker |United Kingdom |- |Jens C. Skou |Denmark |"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[194] |- |rowspan=2|1998 | |Walter Kohn |United States |"for his development of the density-functional theory"[195] |- | |John A. Pople |United Kingdom |"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"[195] |- |1999 | |Ahmed H. Zewail |Egypt
United States |"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"[196] |- |rowspan=3|2000 |rowspan=3| |Alan J. Heeger |United States |rowspan=3|"for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"[197] |- |Alan G MacDiarmid |United States
New Zealand |- |Hideki Shirakawa |Japan |- |rowspan=3|2001 | |William S. Knowles |United States |rowspan=2|"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"[198] |- |Ryoji Noyori |Ryoji Noyori |Japan |- | |K. Barry Sharpless |United States |"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[198] |- |rowspan=3|2002 |John B. Fenn |John B. Fenn |United States |rowspan=2|"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"[199] |- | |Koichi Tanaka |Japan |- |Kurt Wüthrich |Kurt Wüthrich |Switzerland |"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"[199] |- |rowspan=2|2003 | |Peter Agre |United States |"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[200] |- |Roderick MacKinnon |Roderick MacKinnon |United States |"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[200] |- |rowspan=3|2004 |Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Ciehanover.jpg |Aaron Ciechanover |Israel |rowspan=3|"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[201] |- |Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Hershko.jpg |Avram Hershko |Israel |- |Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Rose.jpg |Irwin Rose |United States |- |rowspan=3|2005 | |Yves Chauvin |France |rowspan=3|"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"[202] |- |Robert Grubbs |Robert H. Grubbs |United States |- | |Richard R. Schrock |United States |- |2006 |Roger.Kornberg.JPG |Roger D. Kornberg |United States |"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[203] |- |2007 |Prof Ertl-Portrait.jpg |Gerhard Ertl |Germany |"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[204] |- |rowspan=3|2008 |Osamu Shimomura-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-2.jpg |Osamu Shimomura |United States[205] |rowspan=3|"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[206] |- |Martin Chalfie-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-4.jpg |Martin Chalfie |United States |- |Roger Tsien-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-2.jpg |Roger Y. Tsien |United States |} === Medicine me Nobel prize jiite waala log (decided by Karolinska Institutet) === ==== 1901-1910 ====

Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1906

* 1901 - Emil Adolf von Behring, Germany, for making a serum to stop people getting the disease diphtheria[207] * 1902 - Ronald Ross, United Kingdom, for work on malaria[208] * 1903 - Niels Ryberg Finsen, Denmark, for treating lupus vulgaris (tuberculosis of the skin), with light radiation.[209] * 1904 - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Russia, for his work on the way digestion works.[210] * 1905 - Robert Koch, Germany, for studying tuberculosis[211] * 1906 - Camillo Golgi, Italy and Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spain for their work on the parts of the nervous system[212] * 1907 - Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, France, for his work on the way protozoa can cause disease[213] * 1908 - Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Russia, and Paul Ehrlich, Germany, for finding out how immunity fights disease[214] * 1909 - Emil Theodor Kocher, Switzerland, for his work on the thyroid gland[215] * 1910, Albrecht Kossel, Germany, for his work on proteins and nucleic substances[216] ==== 1911-1919 ====

Allvar Gullstrand, 1911

* 1911 - Allvar Gullstrand, Sweden, for his work on light refraction and the eye[217] * 1912 - Alexis Carrel, France, for his work on joining blood vessels and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs[218] * 1913 - Charles Robert Richet, France, for his work on anaphylaxis[219] * 1914 - Robert Bárány, Austria, for his work on the ear and balance[220] * 1915 - Not awarded * 1916 - Not awarded * 1917 - Not awarded * 1918 - Not awarded * 1919 - Jules Bordet, Belgium, for his discoveries about immunity[221] ==== 1920-1929 ====

Frederick Banting, 1923

* 1920 - Schack August Steenberg Krogh, Denmark, for his discoveries about capillaries[222] * 1921 - Not awarded * 1922 - Archibald Vivian Hill, United Kingdom, for finding out how muscles make heat[223] * 1922 - Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Germany, for finding out how oxygen makes chemical changes in lactic acid in muscles[223] * 1923 - Frederick Grant Banting, Canada and John James Richard Macleod, Canada, for the discovery of insulin"[224] * 1924 - Willem Einthoven, The Netherlands, for inventing the electrocardiogram"[225] * 1925 - Not awarded * 1926 - Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, Denmark, for his discovery that an infection could lead to cancer[226] * 1927 - Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austria, for his discovery that malaria inoculation helps the treatment of paralysis[227] * 1928 - Charles Jules Henri Nicolle, France, for his work on typhus[228] * 1929, Christiaan Eijkman, The Netherlands, for finding out how to use a vitamin to stop nerve pain"[229] * 1929 - Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, United Kingdom, for his discovery of the vitamins that help growth[229] ==== 1930-1939 ====

Karl Landsteiner, on an Austrian banknote

* 1930 - Karl Landsteiner, for discovery of human blood types[230] * 1931 - Otto Heinrich Warburg, Germany, for his discovery of the respiratory enzyme[231] * 1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, United Kingdom, and Edgar Douglas Adrian, United Kingdom, for discoveries about neurons (nerve cells)[232] * 1933 - Thomas Hunt Morgan, United States, for his work on chromosomes and heredity"[233] * 1934 - George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, and William Parry Murphy, United States, for their work on treating the liver to help with anaemia[234] * 1935 - Hans Spemann, Germany, for finding the organizer effect in embryonic development[235] * 1936 - Sir Henry Hallett Dale, United Kingdom, and Otto Loewi, Austria for their discoveries about neurotransmitters and nerve impulses[236] * 1937 - Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt, Hungary, for his discoveries about cells, vitamin C and chemical changes of fumaric acid[237] * 1938 - Corneille Jean François Heymans, Belgium, for work on the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the control of breathing[238] * 1939 - Gerhard Domagk, Germany, for finding the antibacterial effects of prontosil[239] ==== 1940-1949 ====

Alexander Fleming, 1945

* 1940 - Not awarded * 1941 - Not awarded * 1942 - Not awarded * 1943 - Carl Peter Henrik Dam, Denmark, for his discovery of vitamin K[240] * 1943 - Edward Adelbert Doisy, United States, for work on vitamin K"[240] * 1944 - Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser, United States, for their discoveries about single nerve fibres[241] * 1945 - Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chaen, United Kingdom and Howard Walter Florey, Australia, for the discovery of penicillin and making it into an antibiotic to cure infectious diseases[242] * 1946 - Hermann Joseph Muller, United States, for the discovery of mutations caused by X-ray irradiation[243] * 1947 - Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz, United States, for their work on catalytic conversion of glycogen[244] * 1947 - Bernardo Alberto Houssay, Argentina, for finding out how the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe works in the metabolism of sugar[244] * 1948 - Paul Hermann Müller, Switzerland, for his work on DDT as a poison against several insects[245] * 1949 - Walter Rudolf Hess, Switzerland, for his discovery of the way the brain controls the internal organs[246] * 1949 - Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz, Portugal, for using leucotomy (brain surgery) to cure some mental illnesses.[246] ==== 1950-1959 ====

Selman Waksman, 1952

* 1950 - Philip Showalter Hench, Edward Calvin Kendall, United States, and Tadeusz Reichstein, Switzerland, for finding out about the hormones of the adrenal cortex.[247] * 1951 - Max Theiler, Union of South Africa, for his discoveries about yellow fever.[248] * 1952 - Selman Abraham Waksman, United States, for finding streptomycin, the first antibiotic to work against tuberculosis[249] * 1953 - Hans Adolf Krebs, United Kingdom, for his discovery of the citric acid cycle[250] * 1953 - Fritz Albert Lipmann, United States, for his discovery of co-enzyme A[250] * 1954 - John Franklin Enders, Frederick Chapman Robbins, and Thomas Huckle Weller, United States, for finding the poliomyelitis virus and growing it in a laboratory[251] * 1955 - Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell, Sweden, for his discoveries about enzymes changing with oxygen[252] * 1956 - André Frédéric Cournand, Dickinson W. Richards, United States, and Werner Forssmann, Federal Republic of Germany, for their discoveries about heart catheterization and changes in the circulatory system[253] * 1957 - Daniel Bovet, Italy for his work on antihistamine and what they do to parts of the body[254] * 1958 - George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum, United States, for finding out how genes work[255] * 1958 - Joshua Lederberg, United States, for finding out how genes can work together and the organization of the genes in bacteria[255] * 1959 - Arthur Kornberg and Severo Ochoa, United States, for their discovery of how living things join ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)[256] ==== 1960-1969 ==== * 1960 - Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australia, and Peter Brian Medawar, United Kingdom, for finding out how the body's immunity to things can change.[257] * 1961 - Georg von Békésy, United States, for his discoveries about the cochlea"[258] * 1962 - Francis Harry Compton Crick, United Kingdom, James Dewey Watson, United States, and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins, New Zealand, for finding the structure of nucleic acids and its importance in moving information in living things[259] * 1963 - Sir John Carew Eccles, Australia, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, United Kingdom, and Andrew Fielding Huxley, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about nerve cell membrane[260] * 1964 - Konrad Bloch, United States, and Feodor Lynen, Federal Republic of Germany, for finding out how cholesterol and fatty acid work in the body[261] * 1965 - François Jacob, André Lwoff, and Jacques Monod, France, for finding out how genes control control viruses [262] * 1966 - Peyton Rous, United States, for his discovery that viruses can cause tumours[263] * 1966 - Charles Brenton Huggins, United States, for using hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer[263] * 1967 - Ragnar Granit, Sweden, Haldan Keffer Hartline, and George Wald, United States, for their discoveries about how the eye works[264] * 1968 - Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana, and Marshall W. Nirenberg, United States, for their understanding of the genetic code and its role in protein synthesis[265] * 1969 - Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, and Salvador E. Luria, United States, for finding how viruses reproduce[266] ==== 1970-1979 ====

David Baltimore, 1975

* 1970 - Julius Axelrod, Ulf von Euler, Sweden, and Sir Bernard Katz, United Kingdom, for finding out about transmittors in the nerve terminals and how they work[267] * 1971 - Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., United States, for his discoveries about hormones[268] * 1972 - Gerald M. Edelman, United States, and Rodney R. Porter, United Kingdom, for finding out the chemical structure of antibodies[269] * 1973 - Karl von Frisch, Federal Republic of Germany, Konrad Lorenz, Austria, and Nikolaas Tinbergen, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about individual and social behaviour patterns[270] * 1974 - Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, Belgium, and George E. Palade, United States, for their discoveries about cells[271] * 1975 - David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, and Howard Martin Temin, United States, for finding what happens when tumour causing viruses infect normal cells.[272] * 1976 - Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek, United States, for their discoveries about the beginnings and spreading of infectious diseases[273] * 1977 - Roger Guillemin, Andrew W. Schally, United States, for their discoveries about how the brain makes peptide hormone[274] * 1977 - Rosalyn Yalow, United States, for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones[274] * 1978 - Werner Arber, Switzerland, Daniel Nathans, United States, and Hamilton O. Smith, United States for finding restriction enzymes and their use in molecular genetics"[275] * 1979 - Allan M. Cormack, United States, and Godfrey N. Hounsfield, United Kingdom, for the development of computer assisted tomography[276] ==== 1980-1989 ====

file:Rita Levi-Montalcini in 1965.jpg
Rita Levi-Montalcini, 1986

* 1980 - Baruj Benacerraf, United States, Jean Dausset, France, and George D. Snell, United States, for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that control immunological reactions[277] * 1981 - Roger W. Sperry, United States, for finding out the role of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain[278] * 1981 - David H. Hubel, United States, and Torsten N. Wiesel, Sweden, for their discoveries about information processing in the visual system"[278] * 1982 - Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, Sweden, and John R. Vane, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about prostaglandins.[279] * 1983 - Barbara McClintock, United States, for her discovery of mobile genetic elements[280] * 1984 - Niels K. Jerne, Denmark, Georges J.F. Köhler, Federal Republic of Germany, César Milstein, Argentina and the United Kingdom, for theories about the development and control of the immune system and the discovery of monoclonal antibodies are made[281] * 1985 - Michael S. Brown, and Joseph L. Goldstein, United States, for finding out how cholesterol is controlled[282] * 1986 - Stanley Cohen, United States, and Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italy and the United States, for their discoveries of growth factors[283] * 1987 - Susumu Tonegawa, Japan, for his discovery how the genes make different antibodies[284] * 1988 - Sir James W. Black, United Kingdom, Gertrude B. Elion, and George H. Hitchings, United States, for finding important rules for drug treatment[285] * 1989 - J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, United States, found how disturbing a large family of genes that control the normal growth and division of cells, can cause normal cells to change into cancer cells.[286] ==== 1990-1999 ====

Ferid Murad, 1998

* 1990 - Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas, United States, for their discoveries about organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of disease"[287] * 1991 - Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, Federal Republic of Germany, for finding what single ion channels do in cells[288] * 1992 - Edmond H. Fischer, Switzerland and the United States, and Edwin G. Krebs, United States, for finding reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological control mechanism[289] * 1993 - Richard J. Roberts, United Kingdom, and Phillip A. Sharp, United States, for their discoveries of split genes[290] * 1994 - Alfred G. Gilman, and Martin Rodbell, United States, for finding G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells[291] * 1995 - Edward B. Lewis, United States, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Federal Republic of Germany, and Eric F. Wieschaus, United States, for finding how embryonic development is changed by genes[292] * 1996 - Peter C. Doherty, Australia, and Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Switzerland, for finding how the immune system knows which cells are virus-infected[293] * 1997 - Stanley B. Prusiner, United States, for his discovery of Prions, proteins that make people sick[294] * 1998 - Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad, United States, for finding how nitric oxide works as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system[295] * 1999 - Günter Blobel, United States, for the discovery that proteins have built-in signals that control their transport and localization in the cell[296] ==== 2000-2009 ====

Luc Montagnier, 2008

* 2000 - Arvid Carlsson, Sweden, Paul Greengard, United States, and Eric R. Kandel, United States, for their discoveries about signal transduction in the nervous system"[297] * 2001 - Leland H. Hartwell, United States, Tim Hunt, United Kingdom, and Sir Paul M. Nurse, United Kingdom, for finding the main controls in the cell cycle[298] * 2002 - Sydney Brenner, United Kingdom, H. Robert Horvitz, United States, and John E. Sulston, United Kingdom, for their finding the genetic controls of organ development and programmed cell death[299] * 2003 - Paul Lauterbur, United States, and Sir Peter Mansfield, United Kingdom, for inventing magnetic resonance imaging"[300] * 2004 - Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck, United States, for finding odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system, (how we smell things)[301] * 2005 - Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren, Australia, for finding the bacterium Helicobacter pylori that causes gastritis and peptic ulcer disease[302] * 2006 - Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello, United States, for finding how RNA interference can switch genes "on" or "off"[303] * 2007 - Mario R. Capecchi, United States, Sir Martin J. Evans, United Kingdom, Oliver Smithies, United States, for finding how to change genes in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells[304] * 2008 - Harald zur Hausen, Germany, for finding the human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer[305]
* 2008 - Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier, France, for finding the human immunodeficiency virus[305] * Winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature (decided by the Swedish Academy) * Winners of the Nobel Peace Prize (decided by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, appointed by the Norwegian Parliament, Stortinget) * Winners of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) == References ==

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