Nobel Prize

Wikipedia se

Har saal Nobel Prizes dher vibhag me dewa jaawe hae. Ii vibhag hae Literature, Science aur Peace. Nobel Prize ke Alfred Nobel ke baad naam dewa gais hae. Iske dunia me sab se barraa prize maana jaawe hae.

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences bhi Alfred Nobel ke yaad me dewa jaae hae, aur kabhi kabhi iske Nobel Prize in Economics bola jaawe hae, lekin ii Nobel ke will ke hissa nai hae. Iske 1969 me Bank of Sweden suruu karis rahaa. Ii prize ke aur Nobel Prize ke ssathe dewa jaae hae.

Prize ke vibhag aur jiite waala[badlo | source ke badlo]

Bhautik vigyan (Physics) me nobel prize jiite waala[1] jiske Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences de hae[badlo | source ke badlo]

Saal Jiite waala Des Kaaran
1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Germany "uske ek rakam ke ray ke pawe ke khatir jiske naam uske naam dewa gais hae."[2]
1902 Hendrik Lorentz Netherlands " uske ii khoj ke khatir ki radiation ke uppar magnetism ke kon asar rahe hae."[3]
Pieter Zeeman Netherlands
1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel France "uske spontaneous radioactivity ke baare me paawe ke baad"[4]
Pierre Curie France " uu logan ke Professor Henri Becquerel se pawa gais radiation phenomena ke baare me khoj "[4]
Marie Curie Poland / France
1904 John William Strutt United Kingdom "uske khaas gas ke uppar khoj aur uske argon ke paawe ke khatir"[5]
1905 Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard Germany "uske cathode ray ke uppar kaam ke khaatir"[6]
1906 Joseph John Thomson United Kingdom " uske "conduction of electricity by gases" ke uppar ke khoj ke khatir[7]
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson United States "uske optical precision instruments aur spectroscopic aur metrological ke uppar ke khoj ke khatir"[8]
1908 Gabriel Lippmann France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[9]
1909 Guglielmo Marconi Italy "[for] their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[10]
Karl Ferdinand Braun Germany
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[11]
1911 Wilhelm Wien Germany "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[12]
1912 Nils Gustaf Dalén Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[13]
1913 Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[14]
1914 Max von Laue Germany "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"[15], an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915 William Henry Bragg United Kingdom "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"[16], an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
William Lawrence Bragg United Kingdom
1916 Not awarded
1917 Charles Glover Barkla United Kingdom "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"[17], another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918 Max Planck Germany "[for] the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[18]
1919 Johannes Stark Germany "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[19]
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Switzerland "[for] the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[20]
1921 Albert Einstein Germany "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[21]
1922 Niels Bohr Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[22]
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[23]
1924 file:Manne Siegbahn.jpg Manne Siegbahn Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[24]
1925 James Franck Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[25]
file:Gustav Ludwig Hertz.jpg Gustav Hertz Germany
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[26]
1927 Arthur Holly Compton United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[27]
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[27]
1928 Owen Willans Richardson United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[28]
1929 Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[29]
1930 file:CVRaman.jpg Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[30]
1931 Not awarded
1932 Werner Heisenberg Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[31]
1933 Erwin Schrödinger Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[32]
Paul Dirac United Kingdom
1934 Not awarded
1935 file:Chadwick.jpg James Chadwick United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron"[33]
1936 Victor Francis Hess Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[34]
Carl David Anderson United States "for his discovery of the positron"[34]
1937 Clinton Joseph Davisson United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[35]
George Paget Thomson United Kingdom
1938 Enrico Fermi Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[36]
1939 Ernest Lawrence United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[37]
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943 file:OttoStern.jpg Otto Stern United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[38]
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[39]
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[40]
1946 file:Percy Williams Bridgman.jpg Percy Williams Bridgman United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[41]
1947 Edward Victor Appleton United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[42]
1948 Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[43]
1949 Hideki Yukawa Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[44]
1950 Cecil Frank Powell United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[45]
1951 John Douglas Cockcroft United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[46]
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton Ireland
1952 Felix Bloch United States "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[47]
Edward Mills Purcell United States
1953 Frits Zernike Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[48]
1954 Max Born United Kingdom "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[49]
Walther Bothe West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[49]
1955 Willis Eugene Lamb United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[50]
Polykarp Kusch United States "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[50]
1956 John Bardeen United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[51]
Walter Houser Brattain United States
William Bradford Shockley United States
1957 Tsung-Dao Lee Republic of China "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[52]
Chen Ning Yang Republic of China
1958 Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[53]
Il'ya Frank Soviet Union
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm Soviet Union
1959 Owen Chamberlain United States "for their discovery of the antiproton"[54]
Emilio Gino Segrè Italy
1960 Donald Arthur Glaser United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[55]
1961 Robert Hofstadter United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[56]
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[56]
1962 Lev Davidovich Landau Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[57]
1963 Eugene Paul Wigner United States "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[58]
file:Maria Goeppert-Mayer.gif Maria Goeppert-Mayer United States "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[58]
J. Hans D. Jensen West Germany
1964 Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"[59]
Aleksandr Prokhorov Soviet Union
Charles Hard Townes United States
1965 Richard Phillips Feynman United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[60]
Julian Schwinger United States
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Japan
1966 Alfred Kastler France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[61]
1967 Hans Albrecht Bethe United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[62]
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[63]
1969 Murray Gell-Mann United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[64]
1970 Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[65]
Louis Néel France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[65]
1971 Dennis Gabor United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[66]
1972 John Bardeen United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[67]
Leon Neil Cooper United States
file:Schrieffer.jpg John Robert Schrieffer United States
1973 Leo Esaki Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[68]
Ivar Giaever United States
file:Brian David Josephson.jpg Brian David Josephson United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[68]
1974 Martin Ryle United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[69]
Antony Hewish United Kingdom
1975 Aage Bohr Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[70]
Ben Roy Mottelson Denmark
Leo James Rainwater United States
1976 Burton Richter United States "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[71]
Samuel Chao Chung Ting United States
1977 Philip Warren Anderson United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[72]
file:Sir Nevill Francis Mott.jpg Nevill Francis Mott United Kingdom
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck United States
1978 Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[73]
Arno Allan Penzias United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[73]
Robert Woodrow Wilson United States
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[74]
file:Abdus salam.gif Abdus Salam Pakistan
Steven Weinberg United States
1980 James Watson Cronin United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[75]
Val Logsdon Fitch United States
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen United States "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[76]
Arthur Leonard Schawlow United States
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[76]
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[77]
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar India, United States "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[78]
William Alfred Fowler United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[78]
1984 Carlo Rubbia Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[79]
Simon van der Meer Netherlands
1985 Klaus von Klitzing West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[80]
1986 Ernst Ruska West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[81]
Gerd Binnig West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[81]
Heinrich Rohrer Switzerland
1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[82]
Karl Alexander Müller Switzerland
1988 Leon Max Lederman United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[83]
Melvin Schwartz United States
Jack Steinberger United States
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[84]
Hans Georg Dehmelt United States "for the development of the ion trap technique"[84]
Wolfgang Paul West Germany
1990 Jerome I. Friedman United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[85]
Henry Way Kendall United States
Richard E. Taylor Canada
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[86]
1992 Georges Charpak France "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[87]
1993 Russell Alan Hulse United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[88]
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. United States
1994 Bertram Brockhouse Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[89]
Clifford Glenwood Shull United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[89]
1995 Martin Lewis Perl United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[90]
Frederick Reines United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[90]
1996 David Morris Lee United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[91]
Douglas D. Osheroff United States
Robert Coleman Richardson United States
1997 Steven Chu United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[92]
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji France
William Daniel Phillips United States
1998 Robert B. Laughlin United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[93]
Horst Ludwig Störmer Germany
Daniel Chee Tsui United States
1999 Gerardus 't Hooft Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[94]
Martinus J. G. Veltman Netherlands
2000 Zhores Ivanovich Alferov Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[95]
Herbert Kroemer Germany
Jack St. Clair Kilby United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[95]
2001 Eric Allin Cornell United States "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[96]
Carl Edwin Wieman United States
Wolfgang Ketterle Germany
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr. United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[97]
Masatoshi Koshiba Japan
Riccardo Giacconi United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[97]
2003 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov Russia
United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[98]
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg Russia
Anthony James Leggett United Kingdom
United States
2004 David J. Gross United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[99]
H. David Politzer United States
Frank Wilczek United States
2005 Roy J. Glauber United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[100]
John L. Hall United States "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[100]
Theodor W. Hänsch Germany
2006 John C. Mather United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[101]
George F. Smoot United States
2007 Albert Fert France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[102]
Peter Grünberg Germany
2008 Makoto Kobayashi Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[103]
Toshihide Maskawa Japan
Yoichiro Nambu United States "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[103]
2009 Charles K. Kao Hong Kong
United Kingdom
United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[104]
Willard S. Boyle Canada
United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[104]
George E. Smith United States
2010 Andre Geim Russia
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[105]
Konstantin Novoselov Russia
United Kingdom

Chemistry me Nobel prize jiite waala log(decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)[badlo | source ke badlo]

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff the Netherlands "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[106]
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer Germany "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[107]
1903 Svante August Arrhenius Sweden "[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation"[108]
1904 Sir William Ramsay United Kingdom "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[109]
1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[110]
1906 Henri Moissan France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[111]
1907 Eduard Buchner Germany "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[112]
1908 Ernest Rutherford United Kingdom
New Zealand
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[113]
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald Germany "[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"[114]
1910 Otto Wallach Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[115]
1911 Marie Curie, née Sklodowska Poland "[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"[116]
1912 Victor Grignard France "for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent"[117]
Paul Sabatier France "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals"[117]
1913 Alfred Werner Switzerland "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[118]
1914 Theodore William Richards United States "[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"[119]
1915 Richard Martin Willstätter Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[120]
1916 Not awarded
1917 Not awarded
1918 Fritz Haber Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[121]
1919 Not awarded
1920 Walther Hermann Nernst Germany "[for] his work in thermochemistry"[122]
1921 Frederick Soddy United Kingdom "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[123]
1922 Francis William Aston United Kingdom "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[124]
1923 Fritz Pregl Austria "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[125]
1924 Not awarded
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Germany "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[126]
1926 The (Theodor) Svedberg Sweden "for his work on disperse systems"[127]
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland Germany "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[128]
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Germany "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"[129]
1929 Arthur Harden United Kingdom "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[130]
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Germany
1930 Hans Fischer Germany "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[131]
1931 Carl Bosch Germany "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[132]
Friedrich Bergius Germany
1932 Irving Langmuir United States "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"[133]
1933 Not awarded
1934 Harold Clayton Urey United States "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[134]
1935 Frédéric Joliot France "[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements"[135]
Irene Joliot-Curie France
1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye the Netherlands "[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"[136]
1937 Walter Norman Haworth United Kingdom "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[137]
Paul Karrer Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn Germany "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[138]
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt Germany "for his work on sex hormones"[139]
Leopold Ruzicka Switzerland "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"[139]
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943 George de Hevesy Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[140]
1944 Otto Hahn Germany "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[141]
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[142]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner United States "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[143]
John Howard Northrop United States "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[143]
Wendell Meredith Stanley United States
1947 Sir Robert Robinson United Kingdom "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[144]
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Sweden "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[145]
1949 William Francis Giauque United States "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[146]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels Federal Republic of Germany "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[147]
Kurt Alder Federal Republic of Germany
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan United States "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"[148]
Glenn Theodore Seaborg United States
1952 Archer John Porter Martin United Kingdom "for their invention of partition chromatography"[149]
Richard Laurence Millington Synge United Kingdom
1953 Hermann Staudinger Federal Republic of Germany "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[150]
1954 Linus Carl Pauling United States "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"[151]
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud United States "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[152]
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood United Kingdom "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"[153]
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov USSR
1957 Lord (Alexander R.) Todd United Kingdom "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"[154]
1958 Frederick Sanger United Kingdom "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[155]
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Czechoslovakia "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"[156]
1960 Willard Frank Libby United States "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[157]
1961 Melvin Calvin United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[158]
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[159]
John Cowdery Kendrew John Cowdery Kendrew United Kingdom
1963 Karl Ziegler Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[160]
Giulio Natta Italy
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[161]
1965 Robert Burns Woodward United States "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"[162]
1966 Robert S. Mulliken United States "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[163]
1967 Manfred Eigen Federal Republic of Germany "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"[164]
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish United Kingdom
George Porter United Kingdom
1968 Lars Onsager United States "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[165]
1969 Derek H. R. Barton United Kingdom "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[166]
Odd Hassel Norway
1970 Luis F. Leloir Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[167]
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[168]
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[169]
Stanford Moore United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[169]
William H. Stein United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Federal Republic of Germany "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"[170]
Geoffrey Wilkinson United Kingdom
1974 Paul J. Flory United States "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"[171]
1975 John Warcup Cornforth Australia
United Kingdom
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[172]
Vladimir Prelog Switzerland "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[172]
1976 William N. Lipscomb United States "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"[173]
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[174]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell United Kingdom "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[175]
1979 Herbert C. Brown United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[176]
Georg Wittig Federal Republic of Germany
1980 Paul Berg United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[177]
Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[177]
Frederick Sanger Frederick Sanger United Kingdom
1981 Kenichi Fukui Japan "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[178]
Roald Hoffmann United States
1982 Aaron Klug United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[179]
1983 Henry Taube United States "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[180]
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield United States "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[181]
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[182]
Jerome Karle United States
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach Dudley R. Herschbach United States "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[183]
Yuan T. Lee United States
John C. Polanyi Canada
1987 Donald J. Cram United States "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[184]
Jean-Marie Lehn Jean-Marie Lehn France
Charles J. Pedersen United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Federal Republic of Germany "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[185]
Robert Huber Robert Huber Federal Republic of Germany
Hartmut Michel Federal Republic of Germany
1989 Sidney Altman Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[186]
Thomas R. Cech Thomas R. Cech United States
1990 Elias James Corey United States "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[187]
1991 Richard R. Ernst Switzerland "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"[188]
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus United States "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[189]
1993 Kary B. Mullis United States "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chaen reaction (PCR) method"[190]
Michael Smith Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"[190]
1994 George A. Olah United States "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[191]
1995 Paul J. Crutzen the Netherlands "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[192]
Mario J. Molina Mario J. Molina United States
F. Sherwood Rowland United States
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr. United States "for their discovery of fullerenes"[193]
Harold Kroto Sir Harold W. Kroto United Kingdom
Richard E. Smalley United States
1997 Paul D. Boyer United States "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[194]
John E. Walker United Kingdom
Jens C. Skou Denmark "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[194]
1998 Walter Kohn United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[195]
John A. Pople United Kingdom "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"[195]
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail Egypt
United States
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"[196]
2000 Alan J. Heeger United States "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"[197]
Alan G MacDiarmid United States
New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
2001 William S. Knowles United States "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"[198]
Ryoji Noyori Ryoji Noyori Japan
K. Barry Sharpless United States "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[198]
2002 John B. Fenn John B. Fenn United States "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"[199]
Koichi Tanaka Japan
Kurt Wüthrich Kurt Wüthrich Switzerland "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"[199]
2003 Peter Agre United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[200]
Roderick MacKinnon Roderick MacKinnon United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[200]
2004 Aaron Ciechanover Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[201]
Avram Hershko Israel
Irwin Rose United States
2005 Yves Chauvin France "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"[202]
Robert Grubbs Robert H. Grubbs United States
Richard R. Schrock United States
2006 Roger D. Kornberg United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[203]
2007 Gerhard Ertl Germany "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[204]
2008 Osamu Shimomura United States[205] "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[206]
Martin Chalfie United States
Roger Y. Tsien United States

Medicine me Nobel prize jiite waala log (decided by Karolinska Institutet)[badlo | source ke badlo]

1901-1910[badlo | source ke badlo]

Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1906

1911-1919[badlo | source ke badlo]

Allvar Gullstrand, 1911

1920-1929[badlo | source ke badlo]

Frederick Banting, 1923

1930-1939[badlo | source ke badlo]

1940-1949[badlo | source ke badlo]

Alexander Fleming, 1945

1950-1959[badlo | source ke badlo]

Selman Waksman, 1952

1960-1969[badlo | source ke badlo]

1970-1979[badlo | source ke badlo]

David Baltimore, 1975

1980-1989[badlo | source ke badlo]

file:Rita Levi-Montalcini in 1965.jpg
Rita Levi-Montalcini, 1986

1990-1999[badlo | source ke badlo]

Ferid Murad, 1998

2000-2009[badlo | source ke badlo]

Luc Montagnier, 2008

References[badlo | source ke badlo]

  2. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  3. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  5. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  6. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  7. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  8. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  10. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  11. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  12. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  13. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  14. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  15. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  16. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  17. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  18. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  19. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  20. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  21. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  22. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  23. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  24. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  25. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  26. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  27. 27.0 27.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  28. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  29. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  30. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  31. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  32. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  33. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  34. 34.0 34.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  35. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  36. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  37. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  38. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  39. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  40. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  41. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  42. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  43. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  44. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  45. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  46. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  47. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  48. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  49. 49.0 49.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  50. 50.0 50.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  51. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  52. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  53. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  54. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  55. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  56. 56.0 56.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  57. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  58. 58.0 58.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  59. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  60. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  61. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  62. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  63. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  64. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  65. 65.0 65.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  66. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  67. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  68. 68.0 68.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  69. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  70. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  71. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  72. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  73. 73.0 73.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  74. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  75. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  76. 76.0 76.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  77. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  78. 78.0 78.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  79. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  80. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  81. 81.0 81.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  82. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  83. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  84. 84.0 84.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  85. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  86. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  87. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  88. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  89. 89.0 89.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  90. 90.0 90.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  91. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  92. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  93. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  94. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  95. 95.0 95.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  96. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  97. 97.0 97.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  98. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  99. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  100. 100.0 100.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  101. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  102. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  103. 103.0 103.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  104. 104.0 104.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  105. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
  106. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  107. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  108. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  109. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  110. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  111. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  112. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  113. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  114. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  115. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  116. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  117. 117.0 117.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  118. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  119. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  120. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  121. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  122. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  123. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  124. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  125. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  126. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  127. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  128. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  129. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  130. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  131. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  132. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  133. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  134. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  135. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  136. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  137. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  138. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  139. 139.0 139.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  140. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  141. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  142. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  143. 143.0 143.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  144. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  145. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  146. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  147. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  148. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  149. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  150. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  151. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  152. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  153. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  154. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  155. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  156. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  157. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  158. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  159. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  160. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  161. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  162. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  163. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  164. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  165. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  166. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  167. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  168. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  169. 169.0 169.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  170. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  171. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  172. 172.0 172.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  173. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  174. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  175. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  176. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  177. 177.0 177.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  178. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  179. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  180. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  181. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  182. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  183. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  184. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  185. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  186. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  187. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  188. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  189. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  190. 190.0 190.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  191. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  192. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  193. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  194. 194.0 194.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  195. 195.0 195.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  196. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  197. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  198. 198.0 198.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  199. 199.0 199.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  200. 200.0 200.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  201. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  202. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  203. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  204. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007". Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  205. As of 26 October 2008, the website page for the 2008 award gives Shimomura's country as "USA". However, the press release from the Nobel Foundation on 8 October 2008, announcing the award, states that Shimomura is a Japanese citizen. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008–Press Release". 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  206. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008". Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  207. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  208. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  209. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  210. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  211. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  212. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  213. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  214. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  215. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  216. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  217. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  218. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  219. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  220. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  221. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  222. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  223. 223.0 223.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  224. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  225. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  226. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  227. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  228. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  229. 229.0 229.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  230. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  231. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  232. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  233. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  234. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  235. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  236. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  237. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  238. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  239. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  240. 240.0 240.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  241. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  242. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  243. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  244. 244.0 244.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  245. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  246. 246.0 246.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  247. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  248. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  249. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  250. 250.0 250.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  251. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  252. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  253. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  254. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  255. 255.0 255.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  256. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  257. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  258. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  259. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  260. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  261. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  262. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  263. 263.0 263.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  264. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  265. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  266. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  267. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  268. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  269. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  270. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  271. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  272. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  273. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  274. 274.0 274.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  275. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  276. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  277. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  278. 278.0 278.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  279. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  280. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  281. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  282. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  283. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  284. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  285. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  286. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  287. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  288. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  289. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  290. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  291. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  292. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  293. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  294. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  295. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  296. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  297. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  298. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  299. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  300. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  301. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  302. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  303. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  304. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
  305. 305.0 305.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-06.