|Commonwealth of Australia|
|Des ke jaankari|
|National anthem:||Advance Australia Fair|
|Log ke baare me|
|Sab se barraa City:||Sydney|
|- Total:||7,741,220 km² (ranked 6)|
|Politics / Government|
|Established:||Commonwealth formed: 1 January 1901
Statute of Westminster 1931
|Leader:||Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor General Sir Peter Cosgrove|
Prime Minister: Malcolm Turnbull
|Economy / Money|
|Paisa ke naam:||Australian dollar ($)|
|Time ke zone:||various|
|Telephone ke dialing code:||61|
Australia, Pacific Ocean aur Indian Ocean ke biich me Southern hemisphere me. Iske official naam Commonwealth of Australia hae. Australia ke area, dunia ke des me se 6th sab se barraa hae. Bahut log Australia ke "lucky country" bole hae. Australia ke continent aur New Zealand ke islands ke saathe me Australasia bola jaawe hae. Nagich ke island ke Oceania bola jaawe hae.
Geography[badlo | source ke badlo]
Australia ke continent aur Tasmania, bahut din pahile dunia ke aur des se alag hoe gais rahaa. Ii kaaran se dher janwar aur perr khali Australia me pawa jaawe hae. Ii janwar me hae kangeroo, koala, emu, kookaburra, wombat, echidna aur platypus.
Admii log Australia pahila dafe 50,000 saal pahile pahuchin. Australia ke native ke Australian Aborigines bolaa jaawe hae.
Australian me Britain ke log aae ke basin, aur suruu me chhe colony rahaa, lekin 1 January 1901 me ii sab colony ek hoe ke Australia des banin. Australia ke pahila prime minister Edmund Barton rahaa. Australia, United Nations aur Commonwealth of Nations ke member hae. Ii des parliamentary democracy aur constitutional monarchy hae aur England ke Rani iske Head of State hae.
Regions aur cities[badlo | source ke badlo]
Australia me chhe state, dui territory aur dher chhota chhota island hae. State ke naam New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, aur Western Australia hae. Dui territory ke nam Northern Territory aur Australian Capital Territory (ACT) hae.
July 2007 me Australia ke abaadi 21 million rahaa. Australia ke jaada log city, jaise ki Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Hobart aur Adelaide me rahe hae. Des ke capital Canberra hae, lekin sab se barraa city Sydney hae.
Jab ki Australia ek barraa des hae, isme ke jaada jagha jhuura hae. Continent ke biich waala jagha desert hae. Khali east aur south ke samundar ke kinare waala jagha me kheti hoe hae.
Itihaas[badlo | source ke badlo]
Aboriginal log[badlo | source ke badlo]
Australian Aboriginal log Australia me 50,000 saal pahile aae rahin. 1788 me English log ke aae se pahile Aboriginal log janwar ke maar ke aur fal bator ke jiyat rahin. Ii rakam se sab log ke khaawe khatir dher khaana rahat rahaa. Ek, dui saal ke baad Abroginal log grass aur chhota perr me aagi lagae dewet rahin. Iske matlab ii rahaa ki grass fir jame lagat rahaa lekin brraa perr nai jame sakaa. Kangaroo, jon ki samthar jamin me rahat rahin Abroginal log khatir achchhaa khana rahaa. Abroginal logan me admii log ke naam janwar ke naam se rakkhat rahin aur iske baad uu janwar ke nai khawat rahin. Ii rakam se uu log ke abaadi jaada nai howat rahaa.
Abroginal log grass ke jhoprri chorr ke aur koi rakam ke ghar nai banawat rahin. Uu log diwal nai banawat rahin kahe ki Australia me ghorra, gaiya aur bherra nai rahin. Abroginal log metal nai use karat rahin aur uu log ke moto lakrri ke banaa rahat rahaa. Abroginal log ii nai sochat rahin ki jamin uu logan ke hae lekin uu logan jamin ke rahin.
Terra Australis[badlo | source ke badlo]
1600s me Dutch merchants log Indonesia se trade karat rahin, jon ki Australia ke north me hae aur kabhi kabhi Dutch jahaaj Australia aae jawat rahaa. Indonesia ke Dutch Governor, van Diemen, Abel Tasman ke ek voyage of discovery me bhejis jab ki uu Tasmania paais, jiske naam uu Van Diemen's Land rakis. Iske naam baadme badal ke Tasman ke naam se Tasmania rakha gais.
British Government ii jaanat rahaa ki south me ek barraa jagha hae jiske koi goraa paais nai hae. Uu logan Captain James Cook ke Pacific Ocean bhejin. Uske jahaaj me kuch jaane maane scientists, jaise ki Sir Joseph Banks aur Dr Solander rahin jon ki Tahiti se Venus ke Suraj ke aage se jaate dekhe maangat rahin. Captain Cook ke chuppe se batawa gais rahaa ki uu "Terra Australis" (south ke bhaari continent ke khoje.
Ii khoj me Cook se safalta mila kahe ki uu New Zealand ke paae liis aur uske right round sail karis. Jab uu west ke bagal sail karis tab use jamin mila jiske you "New South Wales" naam rakhis. Huan pe uske janwar au perr mila jiske uu kabhi dekhis nai rahaa aur uu logan dher specimen ke bator ke England lae gais.
Captain Cook, Abroginal log ke bhi dekhis. Uu dekhis ki Abroginal log kon rakam se machchhri pakrre, janwar ke maare aur bia aur fal ke batore. Lekin koi ghar, nai to fence nai dekhae diis kahe ki Abroginal log jamin ke own nai karat rahin lekin ii biswas karat rahin ki uu logan jamin ke hae.
Settlement[badlo | source ke badlo]
1700s me England se jaheli log ke America bheja jawat rahaa, lekin 1783 me jab America independent hoe gais tab jaheli log ke New South Wales bheje ke decide karaa gais. 1788 me 11 jahaaj ke First Fleet, Portsmouth se jaheli, lascar (sailors), soldier aur dui saal bhar ke khana lae ke sail karis 26 January 1788 ke nawaa des me jhanda charrhawa gais aur New South Wales ke England ke ek colony banawa gais. Iske baad Norfolk Island aur Tasmania me bhi English log jaae ke basin. hey peolpe
Exploration[badlo | source ke badlo]
Kahe ki Australia bahut barraa continent hae, tab pahile ke din me bahut log bhitar ke area ke exploration khatir gain rahaa. 1813 me Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson aur 17 year-old called William Charles Wentworth Blue Mountains ke paar kar ke kheti kare waala achchhaa jamin paain. Hian pe,, Sydney se 100 mile duur, Bathurst town banawa gais. Kuch aur log , jaise ki Captain Charles Sturt, Burke and Wills, Ludwig Leichhardt aur Major Thomas Mitchell bhittar waala jagha ke explore karin.
Politics[badlo | source ke badlo]
Australia me chhe state aur dui territory hae. Sab state ke aapan Parliament hae. Australia ke Parliament Canberra me baithe hae. Australia ke Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, jon ki Australian Labour Party ke leader hae, hae. Australia ke HEad of State , Britain ke rani hae aur uske Australia me Governor General repesent kare hae.
Australia ke Prime Minister ke list[badlo | source ke badlo]
Niche ke suchi me Prime Ministers of Australia hae jin logan ke naam, janam ke taarik, janam ke jagha, kab pahila dafe Parliament me chuna gais rahaa, political party, electoral constituency, office le ke raarik, office chhorre ke taarik, parliament chhorre ke taarik (where applicable) aaur maut ke taarik (where applicable).
Party ke naam jon ki hian pe dewa gais hae, uu party ke naam hae jiske member Prim Minister rahaa, jab ki uu elect bhais rahaa.
List[badlo | source ke badlo]
Protectionist Labor Free Trade Commonwealth Liberal National Labor/Nationalist/United Australia Country Liberal
|No.||Naam||Janam ke tarik||Janam ke jagha||Pahila election||Party||Electorate||Assumed office||Left office||Left Parliament||Maut||Ref|
|1||Sir Edmund Barton||18 January 1849||Sydney||29 March 1901||Protectionist||Hunter, New South Wales||1 January 1901||24 September 1903||resigned
30 September 1903
|7 January 1920|||
|2||Alfred Deakin||3 August 1856||Melbourne||29 March 1901||Protectionist||Ballaarat, Vic1||24 September 1903||27 April 1904||(see below)||(see below)|||
|3||Chris Watson||9 April 1867||Valparaíso, Chile||29 March 1901||Labor||Bland, NSW||27 April 1904||18 August 1904||retired
19 February 1910
|18 November 1941|||
|4||Sir George Reid||25 February 1845||Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland||29 March 1901||Free Trade||East Sydney, NSW||18 August 1904||5 July 1905||resigned
24 November 1909
|13 September 1918|||
|-||Alfred Deakin||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||5 July 1905||13 November 1908||(see below)||(see below)|
|5||Andrew Fisher||29 August 1862||Crosshouse, East Ayrshire, Scotland||29 March 1901||Labor||Wide Bay, Qld||13 November 1908||2 June 1909||(see below)||(see below)|||
|-||Alfred Deakin||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||Commonwealth Liberal||(see above)||2 June 1909||29 April 1910||retired
23 April 1913
|7 October 1919|
|-||Andrew Fisher||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||29 April 1910||24 June 1913||(see below)||(see below)|
|6||Joseph Cook||7 December 1860||Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England||29 March 1901||Commonwealth Liberal||Parramatta, NSW||24 June 1913||17 September 1914||resigned
11 November 1921
|30 July 1947|||
|-||Andrew Fisher||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||17 September 1914||27 October 1915||resigned
27 October 1915
|22 October 1928|
|7||Billy Hughes||25 September 1862||London, England||29 March 1901||Labor||West Sydney, NSW||27 October 1915||14 November 1916||(see below)||(see below)|||
|-||Billy Hughes||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||National Labor||(see above)||14 November 1916||17 February 1917||(see below)||(see below)|
|-||Billy Hughes||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||Nationalist||Bendigo, Vic||17 February 1917||9 February 1923||died
28 October 1952
|28 October 1952|
|8||Stanley Bruce||15 April 1883||Melbourne||11 May 1918||Nationalist||Flinders, Vic||9 February 1923||22 October 1929||lost his seat while PM 12 October 1929; re-elected 19 December 1931; resigned 6 October 1933||25 August 1967|||
|9||James Scullin||18 September 1876||Trawalla, Victoria||13 April 1910||Labor||Yarra, Vic||22 October 1929||6 January 1932||retired
31 October 1949
|28 January 1953|||
|10||Joseph Lyons||file:Josephlyons.jpg||15 September 1879||Circular Head, Tasmania||12 October 1929||United Australia||Wilmot, Tas||6 January 1932||7 April 1939||died
7 April 1939
|7 April 1939|||
|11||Sir Earle Page||8 August 1880||Grafton, New South Wales||13 December 1919||Country||Cowper, NSW||7 April 1939||26 April 1939||defeated
9 December 1961
|20 December 1961|||
|12||Robert Menzies||20 December 1894||Jeparit, Victoria||15 September 1934||United Australia||Kooyong, Vic||26 April 1939||28 August 1941||(see below)||(see below)|||
|13||Arthur Fadden||13 April 1895||Ingham, Queensland||19 December 1936||Country||Darling Downs, Qld||28 August 1941||7 October 1941||retired
14 October 1958
|21 April 1973|||
|14||John Curtin||8 January 1885||Creswick, Victoria||17 November 1928||Labor||Fremantle, WA||7 October 1941||5 July 1945||died
5 July 1945
|5 July 1945|
|15||Frank Forde||18 July 1890||Mitchell, Queensland||16 December 1922||Labor||Capricornia, Qld||6 July 1945||13 July 1945||retired
28 September 1946
|28 January 1983|
|16||Ben Chifley||22 September 1885||Bathurst, New South Wales||17 November 1928||Labor||Macquarie, NSW||13 July 1945||19 December 1949||died
13 June 1951
|13 June 1951|
|-||Sir Robert Menzies||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||(see above)||Liberal||(see above)||19 December 1949||26 January 1966||resigned
17 February 1966
|15 May 1978|
|17||Harold Holt||5 August 1908||Sydney||17 August 1935||Liberal||Higgins, Vic||26 January 1966||19 December 19672||17 December 1967||17 December 1967|
|18||John McEwen||29 March 1900||Chiltern, Victoria||15 September 1934||Country||Murray, Vic||19 December 1967||10 January 1968||resigned
1 February 1971
|20 November 1980|
|19||John Gorton||9 September 1911||Melbourne||22 February 1950 3||Liberal||Higgins, Vic||10 January 1968||10 March 1971||retired
11 November 19754
|19 May 2002|
|20||William McMahon||23 February 1908||Sydney||10 December 1949||Liberal||Lowe, NSW||10 March 1971||5 December 1972||resigned
4 January 1982
|31 March 1988|
|21||Gough Whitlam||11 July 1916||Melbourne||29 November 1952||Labor||Werriwa, NSW||5 December 1972||11 November 1975||resigned
31 July 1978
|22||Malcolm Fraser||21 May 1930||Melbourne||10 December 1955||Liberal||Wannon, Vic||11 November 1975||11 March 1983||resigned
31 March 1983
|23||Bob Hawke||9 December 1929||Bordertown, South Australia||18 October 1980||Labor||Wills, Vic||11 March 1983||20 December 1991||rgf fesigned
20 February 1992
|24||Paul Keating||18 January 1944||Sydney||[[Australian federal election, 1969yj||20 December 1991||11 March 1996||resigned
23 April 1996
|25||John Howard||file:Vcbf yj4Liberal||Bennelong, NSW||11 March 1996||3 December 2007||lost his own seat while PM
24 November 2007
|26||Kevin Rudd||21 September 1957||Nambour, Queensland||3 October 1998||Labor||Griffith, QLD||3 December 2007||Incumbent||-||still living|
Demographics[badlo | source ke badlo]
Country of Birth[badlo | source ke badlo]
Australian ke Bureau of Statistics () se ii pataa lage hae ki mid-2006 me 4,956,863 Australia me rahe waala logan Australia se bahaar paida bhaen rahaa. I Australia ke abaadi ke 24% hae. Australia me rahe waala ii des me paida bhian rahaa:
|Paida hoe waala des||Estimated Resident Population
|Peoples Republic of China||279,447|
|Republic of Macedonia||83,951|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||19,000|
Indigenous abaadis[badlo | source ke badlo]
2001 ke Census me 366,436 loag apne ke Aboriginal (2.07% of all respondents) batain, 26,088 batain ki uu logan Torres Strait Islander (0.15%) hae aur 17,636 batain ki uu logan duuno Aboriginal aur Torres Strait Islanders (0.10%) hae.
Ethnic groups[badlo | source ke badlo]
Australia ke 21 million log me se jaada log colonial-era settlers aur post-Federation Europe ke migrant ke descendend hae, aur ii kaaran se Australia ke ke abaadi ke 85% European descent ke hae. Bahut generations se sab se jaada colonial-era settlers aur post-Federation immigrants khaali British Isles se awat rahin, aur abhi talak Australia ke abaadi jaada kar ke British aur Irish descent ke hae.
World War II ke baad, Australia ke abaadi has more than doubled, spurred by large-scale European immigration during the immediate post-war decades. Non-European immigration, mostly from Asia and the Middle East, has increased significantly since the 1970s; due in large part to the abolition of the White Australia Policy.
In the 2006 Australian Census  residents could nominate up to two ethnic groups to define their ancestry. Proportionate to the Australian resident abaadi, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:
- Australian (37.1%)
- English (31.6%)
- Irish (9.1%)
- Scottish (7.7%)
- Italian (4.3%)
- German (4.1%)
- Chinese (3.4%)
- Greek (1.8%)
- Dutch (1.6%)
- Indian (1.2%)
- Lebanese (1.0%)
- Poles (0.8%)
- Vietnamese (0.8%)
- New Zealander (0.8%)
- Filipino (0.8%)
- Maltese (0.7%)
- Croat (0.6%)
- Welsh (0.5%)
- French (0.5%)
- Serbs (0.45%)
- Spanish (0.4%)
- South African (0.4%)
- Sinhalese (0.4%)
- Macedonians (0.4%)
- Bosniaks (0.3%)
- Hungarian (0.3%)
- Russian (0.3%)
- Turkish (0.3%)
Religion and belief[badlo | source ke badlo]
- 25.8% Roman Catholic, 18.7% Anglican, 19.4% Other Christian
- 2.1% Buddhist, 1.7% Muslim, 0.4% Jewish, 2.0% other, 18.7% No Religion, 11.2% Not described. (2006 census)
- The category of "No Religion" includes non-theistic beliefs such as humanism, atheism, agnosticism and rationalism. A fifth sub-category is "No Religion - nfd" ("nfd" = no further definition). The Australian Bureau of Statistics does not provide statistics on how many people belong in each sub-category on "No Religion".
- The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Dictionary statement on religious affiliation states the purpose for gathering such information:
- Data on religious affiliation are used for such purposes as planning educational facilities, aged persons' care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations; the location of church buildings; the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services and universities; the allocation of time on public radio and other media; and sociological research.
As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in church worship is much lower than would be indicated by the proportion of Christians indicated in the ABS statistics; weekly attendance at church services is about 1.5 million, about 7.5% of the abaadi.
Languages[badlo | source ke badlo]
- De facto national language: English
- Most common languages other than English: Italian, Greek, German, Vietnamese, Tagalog, Chinese languages, Indian languages, Arabic language, Indonesian, Macedonian and Urdu.
- Indigenous: Australian Aboriginal languages, Australian Deaf Sign Language
- See 
|Filipino + Tagalog||92,331|
|Australian Aboriginal Languages||55,705|
Historical abaadi estimates[badlo | source ke badlo]
|Year||Population||Five Year |
Bahaari jorr[badlo | source ke badlo]
- Official website for australia travel Official website for Australia travel.
- Australia travel informations User generated guide to Australia.
- Australian employment resources Australian employment resources.
References[badlo | source ke badlo]
- Rutledge, Martha. "Barton, Sir Edmund (1849 - 1920)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Norris, R. (1981). "Deakin, Alfred (1856 - 1919)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Nairn, Bede (1990). "Watson, John Christian (1867 - 1941)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- McMinn, W. G. "Reid, Sir George Houstoun (1845 - 1918)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Murphy, D. J. "Fisher, Andrew (1862 - 1928)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Crowley, F. K. "Cook, Sir Joseph (1860 - 1947)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Fitzhardinge, L. F. "Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862 - 1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Radi, Heather (1979). "Bruce, Stanley Melbourne [Viscount Bruce] (1883 - 1967)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Robertson, J. R. (1988). "Scullin, James Henry (1876 - 1953)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Hart, P. R. (1986). "Lyons, Joseph Aloysius (1879 - 1939)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Bridge, Carl. "Page, Sir Earle Christmas Grafton (1880 - 1961)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Martin, A. W. "Menzies, Sir Robert Gordon (Bob) (1894 - 1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-11-22 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Cribb, Margaret Bridson. "Fadden, Sir Arthur William (1894 - 1973)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-11-22 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics, accessed 9 December 2007
- . Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Last accessed November 18, 2007.
- NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance, National Church Life Survey, Media release, 28 February 2004