Wikipedia:IPA for Hindi and Urdu

Wikipedia se
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Hindi-Urdu phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindustani.

IPA Hindi Urdu English equivalent
b ب abash
bʱ بھ abhor
[1] د ado (closer to French d)
ʱ [1] دھ adhere
ɖ [1] ڈ guard
ɖʱ [1] ڈھ guardhouse
ج hedge
ʱ جھ hedgehog
f फ़ ف food
ɡ گ agate
ɡʱ گھ pigheaded
h ح head (final only)
ɦ ahead
j ي yak
k ک scan
kʰ کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ ڻ burner
(Sanskrit; often [n])
ŋ - bank
p پ span
pʰ پھ pan
(often allophonic with [f] in Hindi)
q क़ ق a k in the throat
(Urdu; often [k] in Hindi)
r ر trilled r
ɽ ड़ ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ ढ़ ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h
s س sue
ʂ worship
(Sanskrit; often [ʃ])
ʃ ش shoe
[1] ت stable (closer to French t)
ʰ [1] تھ table
ʈ [1] ٹ art
ʈʰ [1] ٹھ art-historian
چ catch
ʰ چھ choose
ʋ[2] و varies between w and v
x ख़ خ Bach
(Urdu; often [kʰ] in Hindi)
ɣ ग़ غ like a French r
(Urdu; often [ɡ] in Hindi)
z ज़ ز zen
ʒ झ़ ژ pleasure
IPA Hindi Urdu English equivalent
आ, पा آ, با Spanish or French a to English bra
ए, पे ے between yell and Yale
ɛː ऐ, पै yell
ə अ, प بَ nut
[3] ई, पी ی feet
ɪ [3] इ, पि بِ dill
ओ, पो و old
ɔː औ, पौ law
[3] ऊ, पू loot
ʊ [3] उ, पु بُ look
 ̃ ں nasal vowel
([ãː], [õː], etc.)

ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant

Notes[source ke badlo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 To an English ear, [t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪ʱ ɖ ɖʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪ʰ d̪] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.