Wikipedia:IPA for Greek

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Consonants
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
β b v βίος [ˈvios] vet
γ ɡ ɣ γάλα [ˈɣala]
ʝ[1] γη [ʝi] yellow
δ d ð δημοκρατία [ðimokraˈtia] then
ζ dz[2] z ζώνη [ˈzoni] zero
θ θ θεολογία [θeoloˈʝia] thing
κ k k καλός [kaˈlos] sky
c[1] κύκλος [ˈciklos] somewhat like key
λ l l λεξικό [leksiˈko] lie
ʎ[3] ελιά [eˈʎa] million
μ m m μηχανικός [mixaniˈkos] mine
ν n n νέος [ˈneos] nine
ɲ[3] νιότη [ˈɲoti] onion
ξ ks ξενοφοβία [ksenofoˈvia] tax
π p πρόγραμμα [ˈproɣrama] spy
ρ r r[4] ρητορική [ritoriˈci] trilled r, as in Italian and Spanish
[5]
σ[6] s σύστημα [ˈsistima] sea
τ t τηλέφωνο [tiˈlefono] step
φ f φαινόμενο [feˈnomeno] fly
χ x χάος [ˈxaos] loch (Scottish)
ç[1] χειρόγραφος [çiˈroɣrafos] (often) human
ψ ps ψυχοθεραπεία [psixoθeraˈpia] tips
γγ ŋɡ, ŋɣ[7] αγγούρι [aŋˈguri]/συγγραφέας [siŋɣraˈfeas] finger
ɲɟ, ŋʝ[1][7] άγγελος [ˈaɲɟelos]/εγγενής [eɲʝeˈnis] angel
γκ ɡ, ŋɡ[7] εγκώμιο [eŋˈgomio] good, finger
ɟ, ɲɟ[1][7] εγκυκλοπαίδεια [eɲɟikloˈpeðia] argue, angular
γχ ŋx[7] άγχος [ˈaŋxos]
ɲç[1][7] εγχείριση [eɲˈçirisi]
γξ ŋks έλεγξα [ˈeleŋksa] thanks
μπ b, mb[7] εμπάθεια [emˈbaθia] book, amble
ντ d, nd[7] εντάξει [enˈdaksi] duck, under
τσ ts τσάι [ˈtsai] cats
τζ dz τζαζ [ˈdzaz] pads
Vowels
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
α a a αλφάβητο [alˈfavito] tar, spa
αι ai e between bet and bait
ε e ενέργεια [eˈnerʝia]
ει i[8][9] ενέργεια [eˈnerʝia] seem
η ɛː ηθική [iθiˈci]
ι i ιστορία [istoˈria]
υ[10] y υγιεινή [iʝiiˈni]
οι ɔi οικονομία [ikonoˈmia]
υι υιός [iˈos]
ο o o οργανισμός [orɣanizˈmos] hope
ω ɔː ώρα [ˈora]
αυ au av, af αύρα [ˈavra] /αυθεντικός [afθendiˈkos] [a] then [v] / [f]
ευ eu ev, ef ευρώπη [evˈropi] / ευφορία[efoˈria] [e] then [v] / [f]
ηυ ɛːu iv, if εφηύρα [eˈfivra] / ηυξημένος [ifksiˈmenos] [i] then [v] / [f]
ου u ουτοπία [utoˈpia] boot
Stress and tone
IPA Examples
Ancient Greek
á Acute: High tone on short vowels.
àá Rising to high tone on long vowels and diphthongs.
à Grave: low tone.
áà Circumflex: High and falling tone on long vowels and diphthongs.
Modern Greek
'a άλλος
[ˈallos]
Stress mark: placed before the stressed syllable or vowel.
Represented in monotonic orthography by tonos.
Occurs on one of final three syllables, including any enclitics.

Notes[badlo | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 ‹γ›, ‹κ›, ‹χ›, ‹γγ›, ‹γκ›, ‹γχ› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲɟ ɲç] only before the front vowels [i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
  2. Also may have been /zd/.
  3. 3.0 3.1 [ʎ] and [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of /li/ and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography. Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/. If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
  4. May be a tap [ɾ] intervocalically.
  5. May have been /rʰ/.
  6. ‹σ› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] eg: Σμήνος [ˈzminos]
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 γκ, μπ, ντ usually represent [ŋg~ɲɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [g~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. eg: αμπέλι [amˈbeli], μπαμπάς {{IPA[baˈbas]}}
  8. The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is called Iotacism.
  9. Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (eg: γιαγιά [ʝaˈʝa], κιόλας [ˈcolas], χιόνι [ˈçoni], μαγκιά [maˈɟa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (eg: χέρια [ˈcerʝa], βαριέμαι [varˈʝeme]) and follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s ts] (eg: καρφιά [karfˈça], ποιος [pços], ρεβύθια [reˈviθça]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (eg: μια [mɲa], καλαμιά [kalaˈmɲa]
  10. When following a vowel, ‹υ› represents a pronunciation with [f] before ‹θ›, ‹κ›, ‹ξ›, ‹π›, ‹σ›, ‹τ›, ‹φ›, ‹χ›, ‹ψ›, and a pronunciation with [v] elsewhere.

External links[badlo | edit source]