NATO

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North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord

Location NATO 2009 blue.svg
NATO countries shown in blue

Formation 4 April 1949
Type Military alliance
Headquarters Brussels, Belgium
Membership 28 member states
Official languages English, French[1]
Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
Website

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), jiske North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance, Western Alliance, ke naam se jaana jaawe hai ek international organization hai jiske santi aur and surakchha khatir 1949 me suruu karaa gais rahaa jab Washington, D.C., USA, me 4 April, 1949 me ek treaty pe sign karaa gais rahaa. Isske headquarters Brussels, Belgium me hai. Iske duusra official naam French me, Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN) hai.

Bhasa[badlo | source ke badlo]

NATO ke dui official bhasa, English aur French hai..

Itihaas[badlo | source ke badlo]

Suruu me iske member United States, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, United Kingdom, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark aur Iceland rahaa. Tiin saal baad 18 February 1952 ke , Greece aur Turkey bhi join bhais.

States of NATO

West Germany 9 May 1955 NATO ke join karis..[2] Cold war ke baad, 1999 me Hungary, the Czechia, aur Poland me join bhais. 29 March 2004me saat aur des, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, aur Romania bhi NATO join karis.

Croatia aur Albania, 3 April 2008 ke NATO join karis.

Aur dekho[badlo | source ke badlo]

Further reading[badlo | source ke badlo]

  • Asmus, Ronald D. Opening NATO's Door: How the Alliance Remade Itself for a New Era Columbia U. Press, 2002. 372 pp.
  • Bacevich, Andrew J. and Cohen, Eliot A. War over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in a Global Age. Columbia U. Press, 2002. 223 pp.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower. Vols. 12 and 13: NATO and the Campaign of 1952 : Louis Galambos et al., ed. Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1989. 1707 pp. in 2 vol.
  • Daclon, Corrado Maria Security through Science: Interview with Jean Fournet, Assistant Secretary General of NATO, Analisi Difesa, 2004. no. 42
  • Ganser, Daniele Natos Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe, ISBN 0-7146-5607-0
  • Gearson, John and Schake, Kori, ed. The Berlin Wall Crisis: Perspectives on Cold War Alliances Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. 209 pp.
  • Gheciu, Alexandra. NATO in the 'New Europe' Stanford University Press, 2005. 345 pp.
  • Hendrickson, Ryan C. Diplomacy and War at NATO: The Secretary General and Military Action After the Cold War Univ. of Missouri Press, 2006. 175 pp.
  • Hunter, Robert. "The European Security and Defense Policy: NATO's Companion - Or Competitor?" RAND National Security Research Division, 2002. 206 pp.
  • Jordan, Robert S. Norstad: Cold War NATO Supreme Commander - Airman, Strategist, Diplomat St. Martin's Press, 2000. 350 pp.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence S. The Long Entanglement: NATO's First Fifty Years. Praeger, 1999. 262 pp.

facked up retard NATO Divided, NATO United: The Evolution of an Alliance. Praeger, 2004. 165 pp.

  • Kaplan, Lawrence S., ed. American Historians and the Atlantic Alliance. Kent State U. Press, 1991. 192 pp.
  • Lambeth, Benjamin S. NATO's Air War in Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 2001. 250 pp.
  • Létourneau, Paul. Le Canada et l'OTAN après 40 ans, 1949–1989 Quebec: Cen. Québécois de Relations Int., 1992. 217 pp.
  • Maloney, Sean M. Securing Command of the Sea: NATO Naval Planning, 1948–1954. Naval Institute Press, 1995. 276 pp.
  • John C. Milloy. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, 1948–1957: Community or Alliance? (2006), focus on non-military issues
  • Powaski, Ronald E. The Entangling Alliance: The United States and European Security, 1950–1993. Greenwood, 1994. 261 pp.
  • Ruane, Kevin. The Rise and Fall of the European Defense Community: Anglo-American Relations and the Crisis of European Defense, 1950–55 Palgrave, 2000. 252 pp.
  • Sandler, Todd and Hartley, Keith. The Political Economy of NATO: Past, Present, and into the 21st Century. Cambridge U. Press, 1999. 292 pp.
  • Smith, Jean Edward, and Canby, Steven L.The Evolution of NATO with Four Plausible Threat Scenarios. Canada Department of Defense: Ottawa, 1987. 117 pp.
  • Smith, Joseph, ed. The Origins of NATO Exeter, UK U. of Exeter Press, 1990. 173 pp.
  • Telo, António José. Portugal e a NATO: O Reencontro da Tradiçoa Atlântica Lisbon: Cosmos, 1996. 374 pp.
  • Zorgbibe, Charles. Histoire de l'OTAN Brussels: Complexe, 2002. 283 pp.

Member ke suchi[badlo | source ke badlo]

Country Population
(2011)
GDP (nominal)
(2010, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2010, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2010, % of GDP)
 Albania 2,834,667 13,292 200 2.00
 Belgium 10,827,519 465,676 5,382 1.15
 Bulgaria 7,351,234 44,843 698 1.55
 Canada 34,447,000 1,574,051 20,164 1.28
 Croatia 4,425,747 59,917 1,060 1.77
 Czech Republic 10,515,818 192,152 2,529 1.31
 Denmark 5,560,628 310,760 4,588 1.47
 Estonia 1,340,122 19,220 336 1.75
 France 65,821,885 2,582,527 61,285 2.37
 Germany 81,802,000 3,315,643 46,848 1.41
 Greece 11,306,183 305,415 9,369 3.07
 Hungary 10,014,324 128,960 1,323 1.02
 Iceland 318,452 12,767 12 0.09
 Italy 60,605,053 2,055,114 38,198 1.86
 Latvia 2,229,500 23,385 268 1.15
 Lithuania 3,249,400 35,734 427 1.19
 Luxembourg 502,100 52,433 301 0.57
 Netherlands 16,667,700 783,293 11,604 1.48
 Norway 4,937,900 483,650 6,322 1.52
 Poland 38,092,000 468,539 8,380 1.78
 Portugal 10,636,888 229,336 5,213 2.27
 Romania 21,466,174 161,629 2,164 1.33
 Slovakia 5,435,273 86,262 1,010 1.17
 Slovenia 2,046,510 46,442 788 1.69
 Spain 46,148,605 1,409,946 15,803 1.12
 Turkey 73,722,988 741,853 15,634 2.1
 United Kingdom 62,008,048 2,247,455 57,424 2.55
 United States 311,328,000 14,657,800 687,105 4.6
Total 906,002,051 32,223,344 1,004,436 3.11


References[badlo | source ke badlo]

  1. "English and French shall be the official languages for the entire North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.", Final Communiqué following the meeting of the North Atlantic Council on September 17, 1949. "(..)the English and French texts [of the Treaty] are equally authentic(...)"The North Atlantic Treaty, Article 14
  2. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/9/newsid_2519000/2519979.stm

Duusra websites[badlo | source ke badlo]

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