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The latest official IPA chart, revised in 2020

Here is a basic key to the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet. For the smaller set of symbols that is sufficient for English, see Help:IPA/English. Several rare IPA symbols are not included; these are found in the main IPA article or on the extensive IPA chart. For the Manual of Style guideline for pronunciation, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation.

For each IPA symbol, an English example is given where possible; here "RP" stands for Received Pronunciation. The foreign languages that are used to illustrate additional sounds are primarily the ones most likely to be familiar to English speakers: French, Standard German and Spanish. For symbols not covered by those, recourse is taken to the populous languages Standard Chinese, Hindustani, Arabic and Russian. For sounds still not covered, other well-analyzed languages are used, such as Swahili, Zulu and Turkish.

The left-hand column displays the individual symbols in square brackets ([a] (PR-open front unrounded vowel.ogg listen).) Click on "listen" to hear the sound; click on the symbol itself for a dedicated article with a more complete description and examples from multiple languages. Consonant sounds are spoken once followed by a vowel and once between vowels.

If the characters do not display, you may need to install a supporting font. Free fonts with good IPA support include Gentium Plus (serif) and Andika (sans-serif).

Template:Compact ToC

Main symbols

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The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.

Symbol Examples Description
A
[a] (PR-open front unrounded vowel.ogg listen) German Mann, French gare For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
[ä] (Open central unrounded vowel.ogg listen) Mandarin 他 tā, American English father, Spanish casa, French patte
[ɐ] (Near-open central unrounded vowel.ogg listen) RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written ⟨ʌ⟩.)
[ɑ] (Open back unrounded vowel.ogg listen) RP father, French pâte, Dutch bad
[ɑ̃] (Fr-en.ogg listen) French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
[ɒ] (PR-open back rounded vowel.ogg listen) RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
[ʌ] (PR-open-mid back unrounded vowel2.ogg listen) American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When ⟨ʌ⟩ is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
[æ] (Near-open front unrounded vowel.ogg listen) RP cat
B
[b] (Voiced bilabial plosive.ogg listen) English babble
[ɓ] (Voiced bilabial implosive.ogg listen) Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants.
[β] (Voiced bilabial fricative.ogg listen) Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children", Korean 무궁화 [muɡuŋβwa̠] mugunghwa Like [b], but with the lips not quite closed.
[ʙ] (Bilabial trill.ogg listen) Nias simbi [siʙi] "lower jaw" Sputtering.
C
[c] (Voiceless palatal plosive.ogg listen) Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
[ç] (Voiceless palatal fricative.ogg listen) German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
[ɕ] (Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant.ogg listen) Mandarin 西安 Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
[ɔ] (PR-open-mid back rounded vowel.ogg listen) see under O
D
[d] (Voiced alveolar plosive.ogg listen) English dad
[ɗ] (Voiced alveolar implosive.ogg listen) Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
[ɖ] (Voiced retroflex stop.oga listen) American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ð] (Voiced dental fricative.ogg listen) English the, bathe
[dz] (Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate.oga listen) English adds, Italian zero
[] (Voiced palato-alveolar affricate.ogg listen) English judge
[] (Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate.ogg listen) Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] (Voiced retroflex affricate.ogg listen) Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
[e] (Close-mid front unrounded vowel.ogg listen) Spanish fe; French clé, German Klee Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
[ɘ] (Close-mid central unrounded vowel.ogg listen) Australian English bird
[ə] (Mid-central vowel.ogg listen) English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief"
[ɚ] (En-us-er.ogg listen) American English runner
[ɛ] (Open-mid front unrounded vowel.ogg listen) English bet
[ɛ̃] (Fr-Un-fr FR-Paris.ogg listen) French Saint-Étienne, vin, main Nasalized [ɛ].
[ɜ] (Open-mid central unrounded vowel.ogg listen) RP bird (long)
[ɝ] (En-us-er.ogg listen) American English bird
F
[f] (Voiceless labio-dental fricative.ogg listen) English fun
[ɟ] (Voiced palatal plosive.ogg listen) see under J
[ʄ] (Voiced palatal implosive.ogg listen) see under J
G
[ɡ] (Voiced velar plosive 02.ogg listen) English gag (Should look like . No different from a Latin "g")
[ɠ] (Voiced velar implosive.ogg listen) Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
[ɢ] (Voiced uvular stop.oga listen) Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Muammar Gaddafi.
[ʒ] (Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant.ogg listen) see under Z English beige.
H
[h] (Voiceless glottal fricative.ogg listen) American English house
[ɦ] (Voiced glottal fricative.ogg listen) English ahead, when said quickly.
[ʰ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
[ħ] (Voiceless pharyngeal fricative.ogg listen) Arabic ‏مُحَمَّدMuhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
[ɥ] (LL-Q150 (fra)-WikiLucas00-IPA ɥ.wav listen) see under Y
[ɮ] (Voiced alveolar lateral fricative.ogg listen) see under L
I
[i] (Close front unrounded vowel.ogg listen) English sea, French ville, Spanish Valladolid
[ɪ] (Near-close near-front unrounded vowel.ogg listen) English sit
[ɨ] (Close central unrounded vowel.ogg listen) Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
[j] (Palatal approximant.ogg listen) English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
[ʲ] In Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
[ʝ] (Voiced palatal fricative.ogg listen) Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
[ɟ] (Voiced palatal plosive.ogg listen) Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
[ʄ] (Voiced palatal implosive.ogg listen) Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
[k] (Voiceless velar plosive.ogg listen) English kick, skip
L
[l] (Alveolar lateral approximant.ogg listen) English leaf
[ɫ] (Velarized alveolar lateral approximant.ogg listen) English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
[ɬ] (Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative.ogg listen) Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
[ɭ] (Retroflex lateral approximant.ogg listen) Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɺ] A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
[ɮ] (Voiced alveolar lateral fricative.ogg listen) Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
[ʟ] (Velar lateral approximant.ogg listen)
M
[m] (Bilabial nasal.ogg listen) English mime
[ɱ] (Labiodental nasal.ogg listen) English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ɯ] (Close back unrounded vowel.ogg listen) see under W
[ʍ] (Voiceless labio-velar fricative.ogg listen) see under W
N
[n] (Alveolar nasal.ogg listen) English nun
[ŋ] (Velar nasal.ogg listen) English sing, Māori nga
[ɲ] (Palatal nasal.ogg listen) Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon (/nj/ said quickly).
[ɳ] (Retroflex nasal.ogg listen) Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɴ] (Uvular nasal.ogg listen) Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
[o] (Close-mid back rounded vowel.ogg listen) Spanish no, French eau, German Boden Somewhat reminiscent of American English no.
[ɔ] (PR-open-mid back rounded vowel.ogg listen) German Oldenburg, French Garonne
[ɔ̃] (Fr-on.ogg listen) French Lyon, son Nasalized [ɔ].
[ø] (Close-mid front rounded vowel.ogg listen) French feu, bœufs, German Goethe Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
[ɵ] (Close-mid central rounded vowel.ogg listen) Dutch hut, French je, Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front. The Dutch vowel is often transcribed with ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨œ⟩, whereas the French vowel is typically transcribed with ⟨ə⟩.
[œ] (Open-mid front rounded vowel.ogg listen) French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
[œ̃] (Fr-un-fr BE.ogg listen) French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
[ɶ] (Open front rounded vowel.ogg listen)
[θ] (Voiceless dental fricative.ogg listen) see under Others
[ɸ] (Voiceless bilabial fricative.ogg listen) see under Others
P
[p] (Voiceless bilabial plosive.ogg listen) English pip
Q
[q] (Voiceless uvular plosive.ogg listen) Arabic ‏قُرْآنQur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
[r] (Alveolar trill.ogg listen) Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Often used for other rhotics, such as English [ɹ], when there's no ambiguity.)
[ɾ] (Alveolar tap.ogg listen) Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
[ʀ] (Uvular trill.ogg listen) Dutch rood and German rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
[ɽ] (Retroflex flap.ogg listen) Urdu ساڑی [sə.ɽək] "road" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
[ɹ] (Alveolar approximant.ogg listen) RP borrow
[ɻ] (Retroflex Approximant2.oga listen) Tamil புழு Puu "Worm", Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
[ʁ] (Voiced uvular fricative.ogg listen) French Paris, German Riemann (some dialects) Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
[s] (Voiceless alveolar sibilant.ogg listen) English sass
[ʃ] (Voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant.ogg listen) English shoe
[ʂ] (Voiceless retroflex sibilant.ogg listen) Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
[t] (Voiceless alveolar plosive.ogg listen) English tot, stop
[ʈ] (Voiceless retroflex stop.oga listen) Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ts] (Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate.oga listen) English cats, Russian царь tsar
[] (Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate.ogg listen) English church
[] (Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.ogg listen) Mandarin 北京 Běijīng (Zh-Beijing.ogg listen), Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] (Voiceless retroflex affricate.ogg listen) Mandarin 真正 zhēnzhèng, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
[u] (Close back rounded vowel.ogg listen) American English food, French vous "you", German Schumacher
[ʊ] (Near-close near-back rounded vowel.ogg listen) English foot, German Bundesrepublik
[ʉ] (Close central rounded vowel.ogg listen) Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ɥ] (LL-Q150 (fra)-WikiLucas00-IPA ɥ.wav listen) see under Y
[ɯ] (Close back unrounded vowel.ogg listen) see under W
V
[v] (Voiced labio-dental fricative.ogg listen) English verve
[ʋ] (Labiodental approximant.ogg listen) Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
[ɤ] (Close-mid back unrounded vowel.ogg listen) see under Y
[ɣ] (Voiced velar fricative.ogg listen) see under Y
[ʌ] (PR-open-mid back unrounded vowel2.ogg listen) see under A
W
[w] (Voiced labio-velar approximant.ogg listen) English wow
[ʷ] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, as in English rain
[ʍ] (Voiceless labio-velar fricative.ogg listen) what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
[ɯ] (Close back unrounded vowel.ogg listen) Turkish kayık "caïque", Scottish Gaelic gaol Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
[ɰ] (Voiced velar approximant.ogg listen) Spanish agua Like [w], but with the lips flat.
X
[x] (Voiceless velar fricative.ogg listen) Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хлеб [xlʲep] "bread", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
[χ] (Voiceless uvular fricative.ogg listen) northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back, in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
[y] (Close front rounded vowel.ogg listen) French rue, German Bülow Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ʏ] (Near-close near-front rounded vowel.ogg listen) German Düsseldorf Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
[ɣ] (Voiced velar fricative.ogg listen) Arabic ‏غَالِيghālī and Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
[ɤ] (Close-mid back unrounded vowel.ogg listen) Mandarin 河南 Hénán, Scottish Gaelic taigh Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ʎ] (Palatal lateral approximant.ogg listen) Italian tagliatelle, Portuguese mulher Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
[ɥ] (LL-Q150 (fra)-WikiLucas00-IPA ɥ.wav listen) French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
Z
[z] (Voiced alveolar sibilant.ogg listen) English zoo
[ʒ] (Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant.ogg listen) English vision, French journal
[ʑ] (Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant.ogg listen) old-styled Russian позже [ˈpoʑːe] "later", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
[ʐ] (Voiced retroflex sibilant.ogg listen) Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɮ] (Voiced alveolar lateral fricative.ogg listen) see under L
Others
[θ] (Voiceless dental fricative.ogg listen) English thigh, bath
[ɸ] (Voiceless bilabial fricative.ogg listen) Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
[ʔ] (Glottal stop.ogg listen) English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɪnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [əˈʔæpl̩].
[ʕ] (Voiced pharyngeal fricative.ogg listen) Arabic ‏عَرَبِيّʻarabī "Arabic" A light, voiced sound deep in the throat, articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx (back of the throat).
[ǀ] (Dental click.ogg listen) English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǀ], [ɡǀ], [ŋǀ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
[ǁ] (Alveolar lateral click.ogg listen) English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǁ], [ɡǁ], [ŋǁ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
[ǃ] (Postalveolar click.ogg listen) Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǃ], [ɡǃ], [ŋǃ].
[ʘ] (Clic bilabial sourd.ogg listen) ǂ’Amkoe ʘoa "two" Like a kissing sound.
[ǂ] (Palatoalveolar click.ogg listen) Khoekhoe ǂgā-amǃnâ [ǂàʔám̀ᵑǃã̀] "to put in the mouth" Like an imitation of a chewing sound.

Marks added to letters

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Several marks can be added above, below, before or after letters. These are here shown on a carrier letter such as the vowel a. A more complete list is given at International Phonetic Alphabet § Diacritics and prosodic notation.

Symbol Example Description
Signs above a letter
[ã] French vin blanc [vɛ̃ blɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang
[ä] Portuguese vá [vä] "go" A central vowel pronounced with the tongue position in the middle of the mouth; neither forward nor back
[ă] English police [pə̆ˈliˑs] An extra-short speech sound (usually a vowel)
Signs below a letter
[a̯] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].)
[n̥] English boy [b̥ɔɪ̯], doe [d̥oʊ̯]

(see also)

Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa.
[n̩] English button A consonant without a vowel (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.)
[d̪] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
Signs next to a letter
[kʰ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ].
[k’] Zulu ukuza "come" Ejective. Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [tʼ pʼ qʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ].
[aː] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc.
[aˑ] RP caught [ˈkʰɔˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɒt].)
[ˈa] pronunciation
[pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]
Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ˌa] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[.] English courtship [ˈkʰɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break (this is often redundant and therefore left off)

Two types of brackets are commonly used to enclose transcriptions in the IPA:

  • /Slashes/ indicate sounds that are distinguished as the basic units of words in a language by native speakers; these are called phonemes. Changing the symbols between these slashes would either change the identity of the word or produce nonsense. For example, since there is no meaningful difference to a native speaker between the two sounds written with the letter L in the word lulls, they are considered the same phoneme, and so, using slashes, they are given the same symbol in IPA: /ˈlʌlz/. Similarly, Spanish la bamba is transcribed phonemically with two instances of the same b sound, /la ˈbamba/, despite the fact that they sound different to a speaker of English. Thus a reader who is not familiar with the language in question might not know how to interpret these transcriptions more narrowly.
  • [Square brackets] indicate the narrower or more detailed phonetic qualities of a pronunciation, not taking into account the norms of the language to which it belongs; therefore, such transcriptions do not regard whether subtly different sounds in the pronunciation are actually noticeable or distinguishable to a native speaker of the language. Within square brackets is what a foreigner who does not know the structure of a language might hear as discrete units of sound. For instance, the English word lulls may be pronounced in a particular dialect more specifically as [ˈlɐɫz], with different letter L sounds at the beginning and end. This may be obvious to speakers of languages that differentiate between the sounds [l] and [ɫ]. Likewise, Spanish la bamba (pronounced without a pause) has two different b-sounds to the ears of foreigners or linguists—[la ˈβamba]—though a native Spanish speaker might not be able to hear it. Omitting or adding such detail does not make a difference to the identity of the word, but helps to give a more precise pronunciation.

A third kind of bracket is occasionally seen:

  • Either //double slashes// or |pipes| (or occasionally other conventions) show that the enclosed sounds are theoretical constructs that are not actually heard. (This is part of morphophonology.) For instance, most phonologists argue that the -s at the ends of verbs, which surfaces as either /s/ in talks /tɔːks/ or as /z/ in lulls /lʌlz/, has a single underlying form. If they decide this form is an s, they would write it //s// (or |s|) to claim that phonemic /tɔːks/ and /lʌlz/ are essentially //tɔːks// and //lʌls// underneath. If they were to decide it was essentially the latter, //z//, they would transcribe these words //tɔːkz// and //lʌlz//.

Lastly,

  • ⟨Angle brackets⟩ are used to set off orthography, as well as transliteration from non-Latin scripts. Thus ⟨lulls⟩, ⟨la bamba⟩, the letter ⟨a⟩. Angle brackets are not supported by all fonts, so a template {{angle bracket}} (shortcut {{angbr}}) is used to ensure maximal compatibility. (Comment there if you're having problems.)

Rendering issues

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IPA typeface support is increasing, and is now included in several typefaces such as the Times New Roman versions that come with various recent computer operating systems. Diacritics are not always properly rendered, however. IPA typefaces that are freely available online include Gentium, several from the SIL (such as Charis SIL, and Doulos SIL), Dehuti, DejaVu Sans, and TITUS Cyberbit, which are all freely available; as well as commercial typefaces such as Brill, available from Brill Publishers, and Lucida Sans Unicode and Arial Unicode MS, shipping with various Microsoft products. These all include several ranges of characters in addition to the IPA. Modern Web browsers generally do not need any configuration to display these symbols, provided that a typeface capable of doing so is available to the operating system.

Particularly, the following symbols may be shown improperly depending on your font:

Open-tail G

These two characters should look similar:

ɡ

If in the box to the left you see the symbol rather than a lower-case open-tail g, you may be experiencing a well-known bug in the font MS Reference Sans Serif; switching to another font may fix it.

On your current font: [ɡ],

and in several other fonts: Template:MFSample

Small capital OE ligature

On macOS, iOS, and iPadOS, ⟨ɶ⟩, which is in small caps and represents an open front rounded vowel, may appear the same as ⟨œ⟩, which is lowercase and represents a open-mid front rounded vowel: Template:MFSample

Greek chi

Some Android devices show ⟨χ⟩, the Greek chi, which represents a voiceless uvular fricative, as the same as ⟨x⟩, which represents a voiceless velar fricative: Template:MFSample

Small capital inverted R

Apple's system font San Francisco has a bug that shows ⟨ʁ⟩, an inverted small capital R, which represents a voiced uvular fricative, as a turned small capital R ⟨⟩. Template:MFSample

Tie bar

The tie bar is intended to cover both letters of an affricate or doubly articulated consonant. However, if your browser uses Arial Unicode MS to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences (letter, letter, tie bar) may look better than the correct order (letter, tie bar, letter) due to a bug in that font:

ts͡, tʃ͡, tɕ͡, dz͡, dʒ͡, dʑ͡, tɬ͡, kp͡, ɡb͡, ŋm͡.

Here is how the proper configuration displays in your default IPA font:

t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m,

and in several other fonts: Template:MFSample

Angle brackets

True angle brackets, ⟨ ⟩, are unsupported by several common fonts. Here is how they display in your default settings:

⟨...⟩ (unformatted)
⟨...⟩ (default IPA font)
⟨...⟩ (default Unicode font),

and in several specific fonts: Template:MFSample

Computer input using on-screen keyboard

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Online IPA keyboard utilities are available and they cover a range of IPA symbols and diacritics:

For iOS there are free IPA keyboard layouts, e.g. IPA Phonetic Keyboard.

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