Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
Владимир Ильич Ленин
8 November 1917 – 21 January 1924
|Preceded by||Alexander Kerensky |
(as President of the Provisional Government)
|Succeeded by||Alexei Rykov|
(Joseph Stalin as the party leader)
17 November 1903 – 21 January 1924
|Succeeded by||Joseph Stalin|
(as General Secretary)
|Janam||22 April 1870|
Simbirsk, Russian Empire
|Maut||21 January 1924 (aged 53)|
Gorki, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||Bolshevik Party|
|Profession||Politician, Revolutionary, Lawyer|
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов, IPA: vla'dʲimʲr ilj'itʂ ul'janʌf), better known as Lenin (Ленин)) (22 April 1870 - 21 January 1924) ek Russian revolutionary aur Bolshevik party ke leader rahaa. Uu Soviet Union ke pahil aleader rahaa. Soviet Union, Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) ke dusra naam hae. Lenin ke Leninism suruu kare khatir bhi jaana jaawe hae, jiske baad me Josif Stalin Marxism-Leninism naam diis rahaa.
School me , Lenin Latin aur Greek bhasa me achchhaa parrhat rahaa. 1887 me uske Kazan State University se nikal dewa gais rahaa kahe ki uu bahut radical rahaa aur Tsar ke virod me protest karis rahaa. Wahii saal me Lenin ke bhaiya, Alexander Ulyanov, ke Alexander III kr hatya kare ke kosis me faansi pe charrhawa gais rahaa. Lenin apne se parrte rahaa aur 1891 me uske lawyer ke licence mila.
St. Petersburg me jab, Lenin wakiili ke parrhai karat rahaa tab uu Karl Marx aur Friedrich Engels ke bichar ke baare me jaanis. Kaahe ki Marxism ke Russia me allowed nai rahaa, Lenin ke arrest kar ke jahel me kar dewa gais rahaa aur iske baad Siberia bhej dewa gais rahaa.
July 1898 me, jab uu Siberia me rahaa, tav uu ek socialist aurat, Nadezhda Krupskaya se saadi karis. 1899 me uu el book likhis, The Developm me rahaaent of Capitalism in Russia. 1900, Lenin ke Siberia se chhorr dewa gais rahaa.
Iske baad Lenin Europe bhar me ghumis aur ek Marxist newspaper, Iskra ke chapis, Russian sabd jiske matlab English me "spark" hae. Uu Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) ke ek leader ban gais.
1903 me, Lenin aur RSDLP ke duusra leader, Julius Martov ke biich me matbhed hoe gais, ii khatir ki Party ke kon rakam se organise karaa jaawe. Ii matbhed ke kaaran Party, dui gut (faction) me bat gais. Lenin maangat rahaa ek strict, centralised, aur disciplined model. Martov maangat rahaa ek kamtii strict, aur kamti centralised model. Martov ke gut waale ke Menshevik bola jaawat rahaa (jiske matlab hae "uu jon ki kamti hae"). Lenin ke gut waala logan ke Bolshevik bola jaawat rahaa ( jiske matlab hae "uu jon ki jaada maange hae").
Lenin, 1907 me Finland gais kaahe ki Marxists log khatir Finland, Russia se jaada surakchhit rahaa. Uu Europae bhar me ghumis aur dher socialist meeting aur ghatna me hissa liis rahaa. Ii time me uu London, Paris me dher jagha me rahaa, aur World War I ke time Geneva me. Larrai ke suruu ke time Second International ke ek barraa meeting, jisme Bolsheviks bhi rahin, broke down, kahe ki dher member Parties aapan des ke larrai me madat kare maangat rahin, aur ii idea Marxist idea of internationalism ke nai rahaa. Lenin aur Bolsheviks (jiske communists ke naamse bhi jaana jaawat rahaa) me se khaali kuchh log larrai ke virod karin Marxist kaaran se.
1917[badlo | source ke badlo]
Jab February Revolution ke baad me Nicholas II Tsar nai rahaa, tab Lenin, Russia laut gais. Uu ek khaas Bolshevik leader banaa, aur public me April Theses ke announce karis jisme uu Kerensky ke sarkar ke nawaa middle class ke mistake khatir accuse karis aur majuur logan se sarkar ke palte ke khatir Workers' Revolution kare ke batais. Lenin also talked about the mistakes of many members of the Bolshevik Central Committee (including Zinoviev, Kamenev and Stalin) who helped the government to continue to fight the war against Germany, against the wishes of the Leninists.
During July 1917, when people said that Lenin had got money from the Germans; he was afraid and had to flee to Finland.
In October 1917, the Bolsheviks under Lenin and Trotsky headed the Petrograd Soviet and other Soviets all over Russia in a taking of power from Kerensky's Government, known as the October Revolution ended up in the making of the first Marxist Communist State in world history.
On November 8, 1917, Lenin was chosen Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars by the Russian Soviet Congress. This means that he was the leader of Russia.
Because he was shocked by the German invasion, he signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Russia lost a lot of land, but the Germans stopped the invasion.
During the Russian Civil War, Lenin started war communism. But after the war, Lenin brought the New Economic Policy. Some private enterprise was allowed, but not much at all. Businessmen, known as nepmen, can own only light industry, not heavy.
After Fanny Kaplan (opposition party august 30 1918) shot Lenin, he started having many strokes and never recovered. By May 1922, he was badly paralysed. After a stroke in March 1923, he could not speak or move. Lenin's fourth stroke killed him in January 1924. Just before the stroke Lenin wanted to get rid of Stalin, considering him dangerous to the soviet republic.
The city of St. Petersburg had been renamed by the Tsar to Petrograd in 1914, but was renamed Leningrad in Lenin's honour in 1924. But after the end of soviet socialism, in 1991, it was called St. Petersburg again.
Before Lenin died, he said he wished to be buried beside his mother. When he died, the communists led by dictator stalin let the people of Russia come to look at him. Because people kept coming, they decided not to bury him. A building was built, in Red Square, Moscow, over Lenin's body, so that people could see him. Lenin's body was mummified (became mummy). It is called the Lenin mausoleum (a mausoleum is a building for dead people). It is a situated in Moscow, Russia, and many people still go there to see him. The body looks ok but it has deteriorated, years of preservation brought tissue wear.
The Russian orthodox churchs prefers burying him with his family, proposal was give to the government but no official reply has been received because his viewing brings in revenue to the russian government.
|- style="text-align: center;"
|width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Aleksandr Kerensky |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Prime Minister of Russia and the Soviet Union
1917–1924 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Alexey Rykov |- Template:End box
Duusra panna[badlo | source ke badlo]
References[badlo | source ke badlo]
- ↑ Chivers, C.J. "Russia Weighs What to Do With Lenin's Body" New York Times (October 5, 2005)