South Africa me girmit

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South Africa me girmit 1860 se 1919 talak chalaa lekin pahila Hindustani logan ke Dutch merchant log India se laute ke time South Africa lae gain rahaa. Ii logan ke ghar me aur nawaa Dutch khet me kaam me lagawa gais rahaa. 1653 se 19th century talak, 1195 Hindustani logan South Africa me rahin, jon ki huan ke gulaam ke abaadi ke 36.4% rahin. Ii Hindustani gulaam logan Bengal ar Coromandal Coast ke rahin. Ii logan aapan Hindustani rahan sahan ke nai rakkhe paawe rahin aur local tribes, aur duusra Asia ke des ke gulaam, ke saathe saadi karin aur ii logan ke larrkan ke "Malay" bola jaawe lagaa. Baad me apartheid ke niche ii logan ke "Coloured" jaat me karawa gais rahaa.

1833 me jab ki British Empire me gulaami ke khalaas kar dewa gais rahaa tab huan ke planters log duusra jagha se majuur ke khoj me lag gain. Bahut kosis ke baad uulog British sarkar ke Mauritius ke rakam girmit suruu kare pe raaji karin. 16 November 1860 me S. S. Truro pahila jahaaj rahaa jisme 384 girmitya logan ke India se South Africa lawa gais rahaa. Yahii rakam se agle 51 saal me 152,184 girmitya logan ke South Africa lawa gais rahaa. 262 jahaaj Madras se aur 122 Calcutta se aae rahin. Aakhi jahaaj, Ulmazi43, 21 July 1911 ke Natal pahunchis. 14 July 1866 se 1874 talak koi jahaaj girmitya logan ke lae ke nai aais, kahe ki suruu me Natal ke economy kharaab rahaa aur badd me India ke sarkar girmit ke condition ke sudhar ke maang karis. Pahila laue waala girmitya loagn Red Riding Hood me January 1871 me India lautin aur complain karin ki uu logan ke 10 pound ke bonus nai dewa gias rahaa. Isme se 62% admii, 25% aurat aur 13% larrkan rahin. Lag bhag 66% girmitya logan Madras Presidency ke Tamil aur Telugu bhasa me baat kare waala log rahin, aur baaki log Uttar Pradesh (UP) aur Bihar se aawe rahin. Jaada log Hindu rahin lekin 12% Muslim aur 2% Christian rahin. Kuchh din baad, Bihar aur UP ke log ke dialects ek hoe ke Souh Africa ke aapan ek Bhojpuri dialect banaa.

Girmitya logan ke South Africa, paanch saal ke contract pe lae jawa gais rahaa. Iske baad aur paanch saal ke girmit ke baad laute ke free trip milat rahaa, nai to kuch jamiin. 1891 me jamiin de ke band kar dewa gais. Hindustai majuur logan ke ganna aur sisal ke plantation me kaam me lagawa gais rahaa. Girmitya logan ke sabere se sanjha talak, hafta ke saato roj kaam karawa jaawat rahaa. Uu log ke kamti se kamti khana de ke kharaab ghar rahe ke dewa jaawat rahaa. Kuchh bhi garrbarr hoe ke baad majuur log ke ration ke kamtii kar dew ajaawat rahaa aur uu logan ke plantation se bahaar jaae pe rukawat rahaa. Ii log ke biich me faansi lagae ke mare ke rate bhi bahut jaada rahaa.

Ii logan ke karraa kaam se Natal ke economy achchhaa hoe gais, aur 1885 ke Wragg Commission batais ki "the stay of Indians in Natal was, in fact, a great boon to the colony", lekin goraa settler logan Hindustani majuur ke khaali "units of labour" ke rakam dekhat rahin. Ii logan ke prastithi etna kharaab rhaa ki Henry Polak uu logan ke "helots of the Empire" batais aur Hugh Tinker girmit ke "a new system of slavery" batais. 1911 me Gopal Krishna Gokhale Delhi ke Legislative Council ke batais ki "indentured recruitment of Indians for work in South Africa is a monstrous system, iniquitous in itself, based on fraud and maintained by force."

Jab ki suruu me girmitya logan ke khaali plantation me kaam karawa jaawat rahaa, baad me ii logan ke railways, dock yards, coal mines, municipal offices aur domestic servants ke kaam karawa gais. Jab ki girmitya logan South Africa ke prastithi se khsi nai rahin, 1911 talak, jab ki huan pe girmit band karaa gais, khaali 23% Inia laut ke gain. Baaki log chhota chhota jamiin lae ke market gardeners aur hawkers ban gain.

References[badlo | source ke badlo]