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English
boli jaati hae Sanyukta Rajya Amerika, Sanyukt Rajya, Kanada, Australia, Dakshin Apharika Fiji, samet vishv ke any kai deshon men.
kula bolane vaale 30.9-40 karor(maatribhaashaa)
19.9-140 karor (dvitiy bhaashaa)
50-180 karor (kul milaakara)
bhaashaa parivaar
  • English
bhaashaa kuta
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2 Template:Infobox Language/SIL14
ISO 639-3

English bhaashaa (English: English hindi uchchaaran: inglisha) Hinda-Europia bhaashaa-parivaar men aais hae aur ii drishti se Hindi, Urdu, Pharasi aadi ke saath isakaa dur kaa sanbandh banais hae. Ye is parivaar ke jarmanik shaakha men rakhi jaati hae. Ise duniyaa ki sarvapratham antarraashtriy bhaashaa maanaa jaataa hae. Ye duniyaa ke kai deshon ki mukhy raajabhaashaa hae aur aaj ke dau r men kai deshon men (mukhyata bhutapurv british upaniveshon men) Vigyana, computer, saahitya, raajaniti, aur uchch shikshaa ke bhi mukhy bhaasaa hae. English bhaashaa Roman lipi men likhi jaati hae.

Itihaas[badlo | source ke badlo]

paanchavin aur chhathi sadi men briten ke dvipon par uttar ki or se engal aur seksan kabilon ne hamalaa kiyaa thaa aur unhonne keltik bhaashaaen bolane vaale sthaaniy logon ko skontalaenda, aayaralaend aur vels ki or dhakel diyaa thaa.

aathavin aur navin sadi men uttar se vaaikings aur nors kabilon ke hamale bhi aaranbh ho gae rahaa aur is prakaar vartamaan ingalaend kaa kshetr kai prakaar ki bhaashaa bolane vaalon kaa desh ban gayaa, aur kai puraane shabdon ko nae arth mil gae. Jaese – drim (dream) kaa arth us samay tak aanand lenaa thaa lekin uttar ke vaaikings ne ise sapane kaa arth de diyaa. Isi prakaar skart kaa shabd bhi uttari hamalaavaron ke saath yahaan aayaa. Lekin isakaa rup badal kar shart (shirt) ho gayaa. Baad men donon shabd alaga-alag arthon men prayukt hone lage aur aaj tak ho rahe hae.

san 500 se lekar 1100 tak ke kaal ko puraani English kaa dau r kahaa jaataa hae. 1066 isvi men duke of nonramandi ne ingalaend par hamalaa kiyaa aur yahaan ke englo-saeksonn kabilon par vijay paais hai. Is prakaar puraani Pharaansisi bhaasha ke shabd sthaaniy bhaashaa men milane lage. English kaa yah dau r 1100 se 1500 tak jaari rahaa aur ise English kaa vistaar vaalaa dau r madhyakaalin English kahaa jaataa hae. Kaाnun aur aparaadha-dand se sanbandh rakhane vaale bahut se English shabd isi kaal men prachalit hue. English saahity men chau sar (Chaucer) ki shaayari ko is bhaashaa kaa mahatvapurn udaaharan bataayaa jaataa hae.

san 1500 ke baad English kaa aadhunik kaal aaranbh hotaa hae jisamen unani bhaasha ke kuchh shabdon ne milanaa aaranbh kiyaa. Yah dau r kaa Sheksapiyar jaese saahityakaar ke naam se aaranbh hotaa hae aur ye dau r san 1800 tak chalataa hae. Usake baad English kaa aadhunikatam dau r kahalaataa hae jisamen English vyaakaran saral ho chukaa hae aur usamen angrejaोn ke nae aupaniveshik eshiyaai aur aphrikaी logon ki bhaashaaon ke bahut se shabd shaamil ho chuke hae.
vishv raajaniti, saahitya, vyavasaay aadi men Amarika ke bar ti hue prabhaav se amariki English ne bhi vishesh sthaan praapt kar liyaa hae. Isakaa dusaraa kaaran british logon kaa saamraajyavaad bhi thaa. Vartani ki saralataa aur baat karane ki saral aur sugam shaeli amariki English ki visheshataaen hae.

Dhvaniyaan[badlo | source ke badlo]

svara[badlo | source ke badlo]

IPA vivaran hindi uchchaaran (lagabhaga) English shabd English speling ke akshara
en:monophthongs
i/iː en:Close front unrounded vowel i machine e, ee, ea, ie, i, ey, eo
ɪ en:Near-close near-front unrounded vowel i bit i, e, y, a, u, ee, ey, ia, ai, ui, ei
ɛ en:Open-mid front unrounded vowel *chhotaa ऍ red e, ea, a, u, ie, ei, ai, ay
æ en:Near-open front unrounded vowel *ae cat a
ɒ en:Open back rounded vowel *chhotaa ऑ hot o, ua, au, ou, ow
ɔ en:Open-mid back rounded vowel *au c'aught a, or, our, ore, ough, oor, aw, al, oar, ough, o, ar
ɑ/ɑː en:Open back unrounded vowel aa father a, au, e, ea
ʊ en:Near-close near-back rounded vowel u put u, o, ou, oo, oe
u/uː en:Close back rounded vowel u rule u, oo, o, ou, ui, ew, eau, oe, wo
ʌ/ɐ en:Open-mid back unrounded vowel, en:Near-open central vowel *chhotaa aa cut u, o, ou, oo, oe
ɝ/ɜː en:Open-mid central unrounded vowel lambaa a bird er, ir, ur, or, ear, our
ə en:Schw a above a, ar, e, er, o (unstressed)
ɨ en:Close central unrounded vowel *chhotaa i rosez es, i
en:diphthongs
en:Close-mid front unrounded vowel
en:Close front unrounded vowel
*ei gate a, ay, ai, ey, ea
oʊ/əʊ en:Close-mid back rounded vowel
en:Near-close near-back rounded vowel
*ou home o, ow, oa, ou
en:Open front unrounded vowel
en:Near-close near-front rounded vowel
aai time i, y, igh, ei, uy
en:Open front unrounded vowel
en:Near-close near-back rounded vowel
aau house ou, ow
ɔɪ en:Open-mid back rounded vowel
en:Close front unrounded vowel
*ऑi spoil oi, oy

vyanjana[badlo | source ke badlo]

bilabial oshthy Labiodental dantyoshthy dental danty alveolar vartsy post-
alveolar paraa-varts
palatal taalavy velar kanthy glottal kaakaly
plosive sparsh p p b ba t *ta--t d *da--da k k g ga
nasal anunaasik m ma n na ŋ n
flap utkshipit ɾ *ra
fricative sangharshi f *pha v *va θ *th ð *da s s z *ja ʃ *sh ʒ *shjha h *ha
affricate sparsha-sangharshi tʃ *ch dʒ *ja
en:approximant ardhasvar w *va ɹ *ra j ya
lateral approximant paarshvik l la, ɫ *la

yahaan * kaa arth un svaron par nishaan lagaanaa hae jo hindi ke dhvani-tantr men nahin hote, yaa jinakaa shuddh uchchaaran adhikaansh bhaaratiy nahin kar paate .

Dhvani-aksharamaalaa sambandh[badlo | source ke badlo]

IPA varnmaalaa kaa akshara any boliyon men
p p
b b
t t, th (rarely) thyme, Thames th thing ( African-American, New York)
d d th that ( African-American, New York)
k c (+ a, o, u, consonants), k, ck, ch, qu (rarely) conquer, kh (in foreign words)
g g, gh, gu (+ a, e, i), gue (final position)
m m
n n
ŋ n (before g or k), ng
f f, ph, gh (final, infrequent) laugh, rough th thing (many forms of English used in England)
v v th with ( en:Cockney, en:Estuary English)
θ th : there is no obvious way to identify which is which from rahaa spelling.
ð
s s, c (+ e, i, y), sc (+ e, i, y)
z z, s (finally or occasionally medially),

Shabdaavali[badlo | source ke badlo]

chunki English ek jarmanik bhaashaa hae, usaki adhikatar daenik upayog ki shabdaavali praachin jarmana se aayaी hae . Isake atirikt bhi English men kai rinashabd hae. Ek sarvekshan ke anusaar sthiti ye hae :

Vyaakaran[badlo | source ke badlo]

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Bhaashaai saamraajyavaad evan English[badlo | source ke badlo]

angrejaोn ne duniyaa ke anek deshon ko raajanaetik rup se apanaa upanivesh banaayaa. Isake saath hi unhonne un deshon par bari chaalaaki se English bhi laad di. Isi kaa parinaam hae ki aaj briten ke baahar san raa amerikaa, aastreliyaa, nyaूjilaenda, kanaadaa, bhaarata, paakistaana, baanglaadesh, dakshin aphrikaa aadi anek deshon men English kaa varchasv hae. English ne yahaan ki deshi bhaashaaon ko buri tarah pangu banaa rakhaa hae. british kaaunsila jaesi sansthaayen is English ke prasaar ke khaatir taraha-tarah ke dushprachaar evan gupt abhiyaan karati rahatin hae.

Aur dekho[badlo | source ke badlo]

External Link[badlo | source ke badlo]

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