Australia

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Commonwealth of Australia
Flag Coat of arms
Jhanda Coat of arms
Des ke jaankari
National anthem: Advance Australia Fair
Log ke baare me
Official bhasa: English
Population:
  - Total: {{{populationtotal}}}
Jagah
country map
Hian pe des ke dunia ke map me dekhawa jaawe hai.
Capital City: Canberra
Sab se barraa City: Sydney
Area
  - Total: 7,741,220 km² (ranked 6)
Politics / Government
Established: Commonwealth formed: 1 January 1901

Statute of Westminster 1931

Leader: Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor General Quentin Bryce
Prime Minister: Tony Abbott
Economy / Money
Paisa ke naam: Australian dollar ($)
International information
Time ke zone: various
Telephone ke dialing code: 61
Internet domain: .au

Australia, Pacific Ocean aur Indian Ocean ke biich me Southern hemisphere me. Iske official naam Commonwealth of Australia hae. Australia ke area, dunia ke des me se 6th sab se barraa hae. Bahut log Australia ke "lucky country" bole hae. Australia ke continent aur New Zealand ke islands ke saathe me Australasia bola jaawe hae. Nagich ke island ke Oceania bola jaawe hae.

Geography[badlo | edit source]

Map of Australia

Australia ke continent aur Tasmania, bahut din pahile dunia ke aur des se alag hoe gais rahaa. Ii kaaran se dher janwar aur perr khali Australia me pawa jaawe hae. Ii janwar me hae kangaroo, koala, emu, kookaburra aur platypus.

Admii log Australia pahila dafe 50,000 saal pahile pahuchin. Australia ke native ke Australian Aborigines bolaa jaawe hae.

Australian me Britain ke log aae ke basin, aur suruu me chhe colony rahaa, lekin 1 January 1901 me ii sab colony ek hoe ke Australia des banin. Australia ke pahila prime minister Edmund Barton rahaa. Australia, United Nations aur Commonwealth of Nations ke member hae. Ii des parliamentary democracy aur constitutional monarchy hae aur England ke Rani iske Head of State hae.

Regions aur cities[badlo | edit source]

Australia me chhe state, dui territory aur dher chhota chhota island hae. State ke naam New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, aur Western Australia hae. Dui territory ke nam Northern Territory aur Australian Capital Territory (ACT) hae.

July 2007 me Australia ke abaadi 21 million rahaa. Australia ke jaada log city, jaise ki Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Hobart aur Adelaide me rahe hae. Des ke capital Canberra hae, lekin sab se barraa city Sydney hae.

Jab ki Australia ek barraa des hae, isme ke jaada jagha jhuura hae. Continent ke biich waala jagha desert hae. Khali east aur south ke samundar ke kinare waala jagha me kheti hoe hae.

Itihaas[badlo | edit source]

Aboriginal log[badlo | edit source]

Australian Aboriginal log Australia me 50,000 saal pahile aae rahin. 1788 me English log ke aae se pahile Aboriginal log janwar ke maar ke aur fal bator ke jiyat rahin. Ii rakam se sab log ke khaawe khatir dher khaana rahat rahaa. Ek, dui saal ke baad Abroginal log grass aur chhota perr me aagi lagae dewet rahin. Iske matlab ii rahaa ki grass fir jame lagat rahaa lekin brraa perr nai jame sakaa. Kangaroo, jon ki samthar jamin me rahat rahin Abroginal log khatir achchhaa khana rahaa. Abroginal logan me admii log ke naam janwar ke naam se rakkhat rahin aur iske baad uu janwar ke nai khawat rahin. Ii rakam se uu log ke abaadi jaada nai howat rahaa.

Abroginal log grass ke jhoprri chorr ke aur koi rakam ke ghar nai banawat rahin. Uu log diwal nai banawat rahin kahe ki Australia me ghorra, gaiya aur bherra nai rahin. Abroginal log metal nai use karat rahin aur uu log ke moto lakrri ke banaa rahat rahaa. Abroginal log ii nai sochat rahin ki jamin uu logan ke hae lekin uu logan jamin ke rahin.

Terra Australis[badlo | edit source]

1600s me Dutch merchants log Indonesia se trade karat rahin, jon ki Australia ke north me hae aur kabhi kabhi Dutch jahaaj Australia aae jawat rahaa. Indonesia ke Dutch Governor, van Diemen, Abel Tasman ke ek voyage of discovery me bhejis jab ki uu Tasmania paais, jiske naam uu Van Diemen's Land rakis. Iske naam baadme badal ke Tasman ke naam se Tasmania rakha gais.

British Government ii jaanat rahaa ki south me ek barraa jagha hae jiske koi goraa paais nai hae. Uu logan Captain James Cook ke Pacific Ocean bhejin. Uske jahaaj me kuch jaane maane scientists, jaise ki Sir Joseph Banks aur Dr Solander rahin jon ki Tahiti se Venus ke Suraj ke aage se jaate dekhe maangat rahin. Captain Cook ke chuppe se batawa gais rahaa ki uu "Terra Australis" (south ke bhaari continent ke khoje.

Ii khoj me Cook se safalta mila kahe ki uu New Zealand ke paae liis aur uske right round sail karis. Jab uu west ke bagal sail karis tab use jamin mila jiske you "New South Wales" naam rakhis. Huan pe uske janwar au perr mila jiske uu kabhi dekhis nai rahaa aur uu logan dher specimen ke bator ke England lae gais.

Captain Cook, Abroginal log ke bhi dekhis. Uu dekhis ki Abroginal log kon rakam se machchhri pakrre, janwar ke maare aur bia aur fal ke batore. Lekin koi ghar, nai to fence nai dekhae diis kahe ki Abroginal log jamin ke own nai karat rahin lekin ii biswas karat rahin ki uu logan jamin ke hae.

Settlement[badlo | edit source]

1700s me England se jaheli log ke America bheja jawat rahaa, lekin 1783 me jab America independent hoe gais tab jaheli log ke New South Wales bheje ke decide karaa gais. 1788 me 11 jahaaj ke First Fleet, Portsmouth se jaheli, lascar (sailors), soldier aur dui saal bhar ke khana lae ke sail karis 26 January 1788 ke nawaa des me jhanda charrhawa gais aur New South Wales ke England ke ek colony banawa gais. Iske baad Norfolk Island aur Tasmania me bhi English log jaae ke basin. hey peolpe

Exploration[badlo | edit source]

Pulpit Rock, Blue Mountains

Kahe ki Australia bahut barraa continent hae, tab pahile ke din me bahut log bhitar ke area ke exploration khatir gain rahaa. 1813 me Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson aur 17 year-old called William Charles Wentworth Blue Mountains ke paar kar ke kheti kare waala achchhaa jamin paain. Hian pe,, Sydney se 100 mile duur, Bathurst town banawa gais. Kuch aur log , jaise ki Captain Charles Sturt, Burke and Wills, Ludwig Leichhardt aur Major Thomas Mitchell bhittar waala jagha ke explore karin.

Politics[badlo | edit source]

Australia me chhe state aur dui territory hae. Sab state ke aapan Parliament hae. Australia ke Parliament Canberra me baithe hae. Australia ke Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, jon ki Australian Labour Party ke leader hae, hae. Australia ke HEad of State , Britain ke rani hae aur uske Australia me Governor General repesent kare hae.

Australia ke Prime Minister ke list[badlo | edit source]

Niche ke suchi me Prime Ministers of Australia hae jin logan ke naam, janam ke taarik, janam ke jagha, kab pahila dafe Parliament me chuna gais rahaa, political party, electoral constituency, office le ke raarik, office chhorre ke taarik, parliament chhorre ke taarik (where applicable) aaur maut ke taarik (where applicable).

Party ke naam jon ki hian pe dewa gais hae, uu party ke naam hae jiske member Prim Minister rahaa, jab ki uu elect bhais rahaa.

List[badlo | edit source]

      Protectionist       Labor       Free Trade       Commonwealth Liberal       National Labor/Nationalist/United Australia       Country       Liberal

No. Naam Janam ke tarik Janam ke jagha Pahila election Party Electorate Assumed office Left office Left Parliament Maut Ref
1 Sir Edmund Barton Edmund Barton.PNG 18 January 1849 Sydney 29 March 1901 Protectionist Hunter, New South Wales 1 January 1901 24 September 1903 resigned
30 September 1903
7 January 1920 [1]
2 Alfred Deakin AlfredDeakin.jpeg 3 August 1856 Melbourne 29 March 1901 Protectionist Ballaarat, Vic1 24 September 1903 27 April 1904 (see below) (see below) [2]
3 Chris Watson ChrisWatsonSepia.jpg 9 April 1867 Valparaíso, Chile 29 March 1901 Labor Bland, NSW 27 April 1904 18 August 1904 retired
19 February 1910
18 November 1941 [3]
4 Sir George Reid Georgereid.jpg 25 February 1845 Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland 29 March 1901 Free Trade East Sydney, NSW 18 August 1904 5 July 1905 resigned
24 November 1909
13 September 1918 [4]
- Alfred Deakin (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) 5 July 1905 13 November 1908 (see below) (see below)
5 Andrew Fisher Andrewfisher.JPG 29 August 1862 Crosshouse, East Ayrshire, Scotland 29 March 1901 Labor Wide Bay, Qld 13 November 1908 2 June 1909 (see below) (see below) [5]
- Alfred Deakin (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) Commonwealth Liberal (see above) 2 June 1909 29 April 1910 retired
23 April 1913
7 October 1919
- Andrew Fisher (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) 29 April 1910 24 June 1913 (see below) (see below)
6 Joseph Cook JosephCookPEO.jpg 7 December 1860 Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England 29 March 1901 Commonwealth Liberal Parramatta, NSW 24 June 1913 17 September 1914 resigned
11 November 1921
30 July 1947 [6]
- Andrew Fisher (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) 17 September 1914 27 October 1915 resigned
27 October 1915
22 October 1928
7 Billy Hughes Nla.ms-ms1538-10-582-e.jpg 25 September 1862 London, England 29 March 1901 Labor West Sydney, NSW 27 October 1915 14 November 1916 (see below) (see below) [7]
- Billy Hughes (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) National Labor (see above) 14 November 1916 17 February 1917 (see below) (see below)
- Billy Hughes (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) Nationalist Bendigo, Vic 17 February 1917 9 February 1923 died
28 October 1952
28 October 1952
8 Stanley Bruce Stanleybruce.jpg 15 April 1883 Melbourne 11 May 1918 Nationalist Flinders, Vic 9 February 1923 22 October 1929 lost his seat while PM 12 October 1929; re-elected 19 December 1931; resigned 6 October 1933 25 August 1967 [8]
9 James Scullin JamesSc.JPG 18 September 1876 Trawalla, Victoria 13 April 1910 Labor Yarra, Vic 22 October 1929 6 January 1932 retired
31 October 1949
28 January 1953 [9]
10 Joseph Lyons 100px 15 September 1879 Circular Head, Tasmania 12 October 1929 United Australia Wilmot, Tas 6 January 1932 7 April 1939 died
7 April 1939
7 April 1939 [10]
11 Sir Earle Page EarlePage.jpg 8 August 1880 Grafton, New South Wales 13 December 1919 Country Cowper, NSW 7 April 1939 26 April 1939 defeated
9 December 1961
20 December 1961 [11]
12 Robert Menzies Robert Menzies 1930s.jpg 20 December 1894 Jeparit, Victoria 15 September 1934 United Australia Kooyong, Vic 26 April 1939 28 August 1941 (see below) (see below) [12]
13 Arthur Fadden FaddenPEO.jpg 13 April 1895 Ingham, Queensland 19 December 1936 Country Darling Downs, Qld 28 August 1941 7 October 1941 retired
14 October 1958
21 April 1973 [13]
14 John Curtin JohnCurtin.jpg 8 January 1885 Creswick, Victoria 17 November 1928 Labor Fremantle, WA 7 October 1941 5 July 1945 died
5 July 1945
5 July 1945
15 Frank Forde Frankforde.jpg 18 July 1890 Mitchell, Queensland 16 December 1922 Labor Capricornia, Qld 6 July 1945 13 July 1945 retired
28 September 1946
28 January 1983
16 Ben Chifley Benchifley.jpg 22 September 1885 Bathurst, New South Wales 17 November 1928 Labor Macquarie, NSW 13 July 1945 19 December 1949 died
13 June 1951
13 June 1951
- Sir Robert Menzies (see above) (see above) (see above) (see above) Liberal (see above) 19 December 1949 26 January 1966 resigned
17 February 1966
15 May 1978
17 Harold Holt HaroldHoltPortrait1953.JPG 5 August 1908 Sydney 17 August 1935 Liberal Higgins, Vic 26 January 1966 19 December 19672 17 December 1967 17 December 1967
18 John McEwen Nla.pic-an23474705-v.jpg 29 March 1900 Chiltern, Victoria 15 September 1934 Country Murray, Vic 19 December 1967 10 January 1968 resigned
1 February 1971
20 November 1980
19 John Gorton JohnGorton1954.JPG 9 September 1911 Melbourne 22 February 1950 3 Liberal Higgins, Vic 10 January 1968 10 March 1971 retired
11 November 19754
19 May 2002
20 William McMahon Nla.pic-an23458756-v.jpg 23 February 1908 Sydney 10 December 1949 Liberal Lowe, NSW 10 March 1971 5 December 1972 resigned
4 January 1982
31 March 1988
21 Gough Whitlam Whitlam1955.jpg 11 July 1916 Melbourne 29 November 1952 Labor Werriwa, NSW 5 December 1972 11 November 1975 resigned
31 July 1978
still living
22 Malcolm Fraser MalcolmFraser1982.JPEG 21 May 1930 Melbourne 10 December 1955 Liberal Wannon, Vic 11 November 1975 11 March 1983 resigned
31 March 1983
still living
23 Bob Hawke BobHawke.JPEG 9 December 1929 Bordertown, South Australia 18 October 1980 Labor Wills, Vic 11 March 1983 20 December 1991 rgf fesigned
20 February 1992
still living
24 Paul Keating Paul Keating bust.jpg 18 January 1944 Sydney [[Australian federal election, 1969yj 20 December 1991 11 March 1996 resigned
23 April 1996
still living
25 John Howard file:Vcbf yj4Liberal Bennelong, NSW 11 March 1996 3 December 2007 lost his own seat while PM
24 November 2007
still living
26 Kevin Rudd KevinRuddZoom.JPG 21 September 1957 Nambour, Queensland 3 October 1998 Labor Griffith, QLD 3 December 2007 Incumbent - still living

Demographics[badlo | edit source]

Country of Birth[badlo | edit source]

Countries of birth of Australian estimated resident abaadi, 2006.
Source:Australian Bureau of Statistics[14]

Australian ke Bureau of Statistics ([2]) se ii pataa lage hae ki mid-2006 me 4,956,863 Australia me rahe waala logan Australia se bahaar paida bhaen rahaa. I Australia ke abaadi ke 24% hae. Australia me rahe waala ii des me paida bhian rahaa:

Paida hoe waala des Estimated Resident Population[15]


United Kingdom 1,153,264
New Zealand 476,719
Peoples Republic of China 279,447
Italy 220,469
Vietnam 180,352
India 153,579
Phillipines 135,619
Greece 125,849
South Africa 118,816
Germany 114,921
Malaysia 103,947
Serbia 96,895
Netherlands 86,950
Lebanon 86,599
Republic of Macedonia 83,951
Sri Lanka 70,908
Indonesia 67,952
USA 64,832
Poland 59,221
Fiji 58,815
Ireland 57,338
Croatia 56,540
Pakistan 19,768
Bosnia and Herzegovina 19,000
Bangladesh 13,751

Indigenous abaadis[badlo | edit source]

2001 ke Census me 366,436 loag apne ke Aboriginal (2.07% of all respondents) batain, 26,088 batain ki uu logan Torres Strait Islander (0.15%) hae aur 17,636 batain ki uu logan duuno Aboriginal aur Torres Strait Islanders (0.10%) hae.

Ethnic groups[badlo | edit source]

Australia ke 21 million log me se jaada log colonial-era settlers aur post-Federation Europe ke migrant ke descendend hae, aur ii kaaran se Australia ke ke abaadi ke 85% European descent ke hae. Bahut generations se sab se jaada colonial-era settlers aur post-Federation immigrants khaali British Isles se awat rahin, aur abhi talak Australia ke abaadi jaada kar ke British aur Irish descent ke hae.

World War II ke baad, Australia ke abaadi has more than doubled, spurred by large-scale European immigration during the immediate post-war decades. Non-European immigration, mostly from Asia and the Middle East, has increased significantly since the 1970s; due in large part to the abolition of the White Australia Policy.

In the 2006 Australian Census [3] residents could nominate up to two ethnic groups to define their ancestry. Proportionate to the Australian resident abaadi, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:

Religion and belief[badlo | edit source]

Template:Main article

25.8% Roman Catholic, 18.7% Anglican, 19.4% Other Christian
2.1% Buddhist, 1.7% Muslim, 0.4% Jewish, 2.0% other, 18.7% No Religion, 11.2% Not described. (2006 census)
The category of "No Religion" includes non-theistic beliefs such as humanism, atheism, agnosticism and rationalism. A fifth sub-category is "No Religion - nfd" ("nfd" = no further definition). The Australian Bureau of Statistics does not provide statistics on how many people belong in each sub-category on "No Religion".
The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Dictionary statement on religious affiliation states the purpose for gathering such information:
Data on religious affiliation are used for such purposes as planning educational facilities, aged persons' care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations; the location of church buildings; the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services and universities; the allocation of time on public radio and other media; and sociological research.

As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in church worship is much lower than would be indicated by the proportion of Christians indicated in the ABS statistics; weekly attendance at church services is about 1.5 million, about 7.5% of the abaadi.[16]

Languages[badlo | edit source]

De facto national language: English
Most common languages other than English: Italian, Greek, German, Vietnamese, Tagalog, Chinese languages, Indian languages, Arabic language, Indonesian, Macedonian and Urdu.
Indigenous: Australian Aboriginal languages, Australian Deaf Sign Language
Language Speakers
Only English 15,581,333
Italian 316,895
Greek 252,226
Cantonese 244,553
Arabic 243,662
Mandarin 220,600
Vietnamese 194,863
Spanish 98,001
Filipino + Tagalog 92,331
German 75,634
Hindi 70,011
Macedonian 67,835
Croatian 63,612
Australian Aboriginal Languages 55,705
Korean 54,623
Turkish 53,857
Polish 53,389
Serbian 52,534
French 43,216
Indonesian 42,036
Maltese 36,514
Russian 36,502
Dutch 36,183
Japanese 35,111
Tamil 32,700
Sinhalese 29,055
Samoan 28,525
Portuguese 25,779
Khmer 24,715
Assyrian 23,526
Punjabi 23,164
Persian 22,841
Hungarian 21,565
Bengali 20,223
Urdu 19,288
Afrikaans 16,806
Bosnian 15,743

Historical abaadi estimates[badlo | edit source]

Year Population Five Year
 % change
1788 8590 -0
1798 4,5880 -0
1808 10,2630 -0
1818 25,8590 -0
1828 58,1970 -0
1838 151,8680 -0
1848 332,3280 -0
1858 1,050,8280 -0
1868 1,539,5520 -0
1878 2,092,1640 -0
1888 2,981,6770 -0
1898 3,664,7150 -0
1901 3,788,1230 -0
1906 4,059,0830 7.20
1911 4,489,5450 10.60
1916 4,943,1730 10.10
1921 5,455,1360 10.40
1926 6,056,3600 11.00
1931 6,526,4850 7.80
1936 6,778,3720 3.40
1941 7,109,8980 4.90
1946 7,465,1570 5.00
1951 8,421,7750 12.80
1956 9,425,5630 11.90
1961 *10,548,2670 11.90
1966 11,599,4980 10.00
1971 13,067,2650 12.70
1976 14,033,0830 7.40
1981 14,923,2600 6.30
1986 16,018,3500 7.30
1991 17,284,0360 12.80
1996 18,310,7140 5.90
2001 19,413,2400 6.00
2006 20,848,7600 7.40

Bahaari jorr[badlo | edit source]

References[badlo | edit source]

  1. Rutledge, Martha. "Barton, Sir Edmund (1849 - 1920)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070202b.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  2. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  3. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  4. McMinn, W. G.. "Reid, Sir George Houstoun (1845 - 1918)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A110362b.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  5. Murphy, D. J.. "Fisher, Andrew (1862 - 1928)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080529b.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  6. Crowley, F. K.. "Cook, Sir Joseph (1860 - 1947)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080108b.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  7. Fitzhardinge, L. F.. "Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862 - 1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A090395b.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  8. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  9. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  10. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  11. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  12. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  13. Template:Australian Dictionary of Biography
  14. Australian Bureau of Statistics, accessed 9 December 2007
  15. [1]. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Last accessed November 18, 2007.
  16. NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance, National Church Life Survey, Media release, 28 February 2004