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Rajbangsi bhasa

Wikipedia se
Spoken in India, Bangladesh, Nepal
Total speakers 15 million
Language family Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3 rkt

Rajbongshi/Kamatapuri ek Indic bhasa hae jisme India aur Bangladesh ke 15 million log baat kare hae. Kamtapuri-Rajbanshi (India), Rangpuri or Rajbanshi (Bangladesh), Rajbanshi (Nepal) is a Bengali-Assamese language belonging to the Indo-Aryan family. This language is spoken by the Rajbanshi community of Bangladesh, Rangpur Division, Rajbanshi, Tajpuria, Nasyashekh, Nath-Yogi, Khen communities of India and Nepal. As the standard form of Bengali language is based on Nadia or western regional Bengali, there are some differences with the standard form of Bengali language. However, this language-speaking population is practically bilingual. In India and Bangladesh they speak standard Bengali or Assamese as well as Rajbanshi.

History of Evolution of Rajbanshi Language:

In the middle of the 4th century AD, Maharaja Mahapadma Nanda of Magadha attacked Pundravadhana and the Maharaja of Pundravadhana was defeated in that battle. We all know that Mahapadma Nanda was a Kshatriya Nidhana Vrathi. That's why Mahapadma Nanda came to be known as "Sarva-Kshatrantaka". That is why at that time the people of the Kshatriya race went to different places to escape from the hands of Mahapadma Nanda, the king of Magadha. Eg: Ratnapeeth in Kamrup, Nepal, Orissa (Even today Sambalpur area of Orissa has Pundrakshatriya (Rajbanshi Kshatriya) population and the language is also Rajbanshi.)

This resulted in the mixing of the languages of those places with the languages of Pundravadhana. However, this became very important later in the field of other languages. As Mahapadma Nanda Katrik Pundravadhana became part of the Magadha Empire, the language of Magadha mixed with the language of Pundravadhana to form a new language. Some linguists named the language Magadhi Prakrit, while some linguists named the language Gaudiya Prakrit. After the Nanda dynasty, Pundravadhana was also included in the Maurya Empire as Magadha was incorporated into the Maurya Empire (322 BC to 184 BC).

Approx 4th century, the Magadhi Prakrit or Gaudiya Prakrit language was transformed into Apavramsha, giving rise to three new distinct languages (Approx 5th century) 1) Bihari (Maithili), 2) Old Oriya, 3) Bangakamrupi (Rajbanshi) languages. At that time there was Gupta rule in Pundravadhana (from about 320 AD to around 600 AD).

After this Pundravadhana came under the rule of Maharaja Shashanka of Gaur (Approx 593 AD to 638 AD). At that time Pundravadhana was named Gaur and then Pundravadhana was named Varendra.

According to historical sources, Maharaja Shashanka of Gaur was defeated by Maharaja Bhaskara Vamana of Hasavadhana and Kamrupa and his kingdom was divided between Hasavadhana and Bhaskaravamana. The whole of Bengal, including Gaur, was included in Bhaskar Baman's, Kamarupa and the whole of Magadha were included in the Hashavadhana empire. The Buddhist text Aryamanjusrimulakalpa tells the story of Shashanka's defeat by Harsha at the battle of Pundravardhana.

Harshavardhana was initially a follower of Shaivism, but gradually he became a great patron of Buddhism. As an ardent devotee of Buddhism, he held a large musical gathering in Kanauj to preach the Mahayana doctrine. On the other hand, Harshavardhana's fondness for Buddhism and hostility towards Brahmanism disappointed the followers of Hinduism. Later, when the Brahmin community clashed with Hashavadhana, Harshavardhana is said to have suppressed the Brahmin rebellion with great cruelty. Brahmins migrated to eastern India in large numbers. Hiuen-tsang mentions the departure of several learned Brahmins as Kamrup. Several Brahmins received grants of land from Bhaskaravarman to live as Kamarus. The Kulaji Granth mentions the migration of several Brahmins from Kanauj to Gauda. This is also known from the Nidhanpur copper plate of King Bhaskara Varman of Kamrup. Although initially welcomed by Gauda and Kamrup, this massive migration eventually had an adverse effect on the socio-economic conditions of these two countries.

As a result of the migration of Brahmins to Gauda, the languages of North India, Maithili language and the languages of Magadha combined with the local language of Gauda (the language of the Pundrakshatriyas) to form the Bengali language. It should be noted here - Bhaskar Bama occupied Gauda and gave land to the Brahmins in large numbers. Maithili gave land to Brahmin as Kama. Later, a large number of these Brahmins migrated to East Bengal and Rarbanga.

This was followed by the amalgamation of “Bangakamrupi +  Maithili + North Indian language to form the Bangla language" and the amalgamation of “Bangakamrupi + Maithili + Eastern Kamrupi + Bhotchinyo to form the Assamese language.”

Among Bengali linguists, some linguists identified Kamarupi language and Barendri language as dialects of Bengali. That has been followed till now. But later modern native and foreign linguists, through modern research, have succeeded in proving that Kamarupi language and Barendri language are not dialects of Bengali language. Modern linguists have not only succeeded in proving, they have also proved that Kamarupi and Barendri are the same language.

Earlier linguists identified the language as Bangakamrupi / Bengali-Assamese, modern linguists identify the Bangakamrupi / Bengali-Assamese language as Rajbanshi / Kamtapuri language.

According to Prove linguists, two languages arose directly from Bangakamrupi / Bengali-Assamese language. 1) Bengali language and 2) Assamese language. Meanwhile, modern linguists have proved that the Bangakamrupi / Bengali-Assamese language is Rajbanshi language.

So based on the evidence of modern linguists, it has to be accepted that Kamarupi language and Barendri language are not dialects of Bengali language. It should be remembered here that the Kamarupi language is the Rajbanshi / Kamtapuri language and the Barendri language is the Pundravadhana language. The Pundrakshatriyas are the present-day Rajbanshi Kshatriya caste. We all know the history of this royal Kshatriya nation. But as a result of the change of religion, Rajbanshi caste is now divided into Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, Christian sects. But the language is the same.

If this is the case, then it proves that the Rajvanshi/Kamtapuri/Barendri language is the mother of Bengali and Assamese languages.

The important thing here is that if you know the Western Kamrupi (Rajbanshi) language, you can understand and speak Bengali, Oriya, Maithili, Hindi, Nepali, Assamese very easily and with a little effort.

But the two languages that have contributed the most to the creation of this Bengali language are 1) Maithili language and 2) Western Kamrupi (Rajbanshi) language. But the creation of this beautiful Bengali language would not have happened, if Maharaja Bhaskar Bama of Kamrup in the seventh century was a strong political Don't decide. His decision allowed Maithili and Pundra Gana languages to merge. Otherwise we would not be able to speak Bengali today.

During the rule of the Buddhist Pala kings, there were not so many social barriers in terms of association, manners and customs between different classes, but during the Sena kings, who were early supporters of Brahmanism, these barriers existed strongly. As a result, the distance between different classes of people increases. The rise of the lower and lower classes in the society became increasingly evident.

After the advent of Islam in India, Islam spread in the Bengal region as well. A Turkish general of the slave dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate named Bakhtiyar Khalji defeated the last Sen Raja Lakshmanasena and took possession of a large area of Bengal. For several centuries the region was ruled by sultanate dynasties or feudal lords subordinate to the Delhi Sultanate.

In the 16th century, Mughal general Islam Khan conquered Bengal. However, the royal court of the Mughal Empire gave semi-independence to the rulers of Suba Bengal in terms of governance. The administration of this region was entrusted to the Nawabs of Murshidabad. The Nawabs were also respectful of the Mughal sovereignty of Delhi.

But Seventh century to the fourteenth century, there was no administration of Bengal in Northeast India and there was no Bengali language. The present boundaries are: North Bengal, East Bihar, East Nepal, North Bangladesh and North East India. How then Charja Pader language is the ancient form of Bengali language? The Charja Pader language is not that similar to the current Bengali language, but the Cha'pader language still has a direct similarity to the current Rajbanshi language, even after more than a thousand years.

Example: “Talot mor ghar, nahi parobeshi. Harit bhat nai, Niti Abeshi”.

European traders arrived in the Bengal region in the late fifteenth century. All these merchants were able to expand their influence in the region. Finally, in 1757, the British East India Company defeated the last independent Nawab of Bengal, Sirajddaula, at the Battle of Palashi. After this, the right to collect the revenue of Suba Bengal was taken over by the company. Bengal Presidency was established in 1765. Gradually all the British-occupied territories from the Ganga-Brahmaputra estuary north of the Central Provinces (present-day Madhya Pradesh) to the Himalayas and the Punjab were included in the Bengal Presidency. Millions of ordinary people died in the 1970s. Calcutta was declared the capital of British India in 1772. Bengal's renaissance and the Brahmo Samaj-centered socio-cultural reform movement had a profound impact on the cultural and economic life of Bengal.

Kamrupi/Rajvanshi language's nimittatha'k anusag' 'bade' (tore bade = for you) is obsolete in Sadhu or Chalit Bengali. But such suffixes are paralleled in other early Magadhi-naturalized languages (compare: Bhojpuri nimittatha'k anusag' 'bade') This suffix may be a reminder of Bengali's kinship with other Magadhi language groups.

A famous verse of Sri Krishna Keet'an 'বন পোড়ে আগ বড়ায়ি জগজনে জানী/মোর মন পোড়ে যেহ্ন কুম্ভারের পনী।'In the words of a North Bengal villager, the following can be heard: "বন পোড়া যায সোগ্গায় দেখে/মন পোড়া যায় কাহয় না জানে।" Just one example suggests that many proverbs and idioms of ancient and Middle Bengal can be found in North Bengal folklore if one searches.

Here the question will arise, how all these medieval language scripts were preserved in Kamrupi / Rajbanshi / Kamtapuri? The answer can be found in the pages of history. Although the Bengali language was prevalent in almost all parts of North-Eastern India, the political separation of Lower and Other Bengal with the North and North-East in the Middle Ages.

At that time, when other parts of Bengal were dominated by Pathan-Mughal and Samantha kings, this place was an integral kingdom. Due to this political disunity, there was a gradual disparity between the two Bengals regarding the development and progress of the language.

The distinct Assamese language was formed by mixing the eastern part of the Bangakamrupi / Bong-Assamese / Rajbanshi languages with the Votochinian and Maithili languages.

But even during the medieval period the Rajbanshi/Kamtapuri/Kamrupi language was established as the royal language of the Kamta kingdom. Even before the accession of Cooch Behar state to India.

The letter written in Kamrupi / Rabbanshi / Kamtapuri in 1555 AD by Maharaja Naranarayan of Cooch Behar to Ahomaraja Sagadev Chukamfa is referred to by historians/linguists of Bengali literature as the earliest reference to Bengali prose. Needless to say not only this letter but also other royal letters of Kamta Rajya and Cooch Behar state were written in this Rajbanshi / Kamatapur / Kamarupi language.

It is noteworthy in this context that not only practical letters were written in this Rajbanshi language, but in Kamrup/Kamtapur/Kochbihar, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas were translated into verse, genealogies were written, dramatizations and padabalis were written in this language.

But it is a great pain that this ancient rich Kamarupi language has been rendered obsolete in modern times. It is even more painful that this ancient language is declared a dialect of Bengali. But as the saying goes, "History is never suppressed. It will be revealed one day or another." Even more surprising, the rich literature of the Kamarupi language has been shared among Bengali and Assamese linguists. Just as ancestral property is divided among the heirs. But that usually happens when parents leave their heirs forever. But what has happened with Kamarupi / Rajvanshi language is like beating the living parents out of the house for the greed of property. How accurate this comparison is with language, I can't say but I feel compelled to make the comparison.

As the saying goes, “History speaks”. Now everything is proven through modern research that Kamrupi / Kamtapuri / Rajbanshi / Goalpariya / Rangpuri / Tajpuri / Suryapuri / Barendri / Bangakamarupi / Banga-Assamese language, the same language and different names are known in different places.

Even international linguists have proved that “Bengali language and Assamese language” – originated from Bangakamrupi / Banga-Assamese”.

Currently Rajbanshi / Kamtapuri language is recognized as official language in West Bengal and Nepal. That is, Rajbanshi language now means international language.

References : 1) A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India by Upinder Singh. 2) Chandragupta Maurya and His Times by Radhakumud Mukherjee. 3) India in the Age of the Nandas / Chandragupta and Bindusara by Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri. 4) Rajbanshi Kshatriya Jatir Itihas by Upendra Nath Barman. 5) The Origin and Development of the Bengali language. By Suniti Kumar Chatterjee. 6) Kamtapuri Bhasa Sahityer Ruprekha. By Dharmanarayan Barma. 7) Linguistic to Sociolinguistic Reconstruction. By Mathew WS Toulmin.[badlo | source ke badlo]

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