Mangalgrah

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Mars Astronomical symbol of Mars
The planet MarsMars as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 249,209,300 km

1.665 861 AU

Perihelion 206,669,000 km

1.381 497 AU

Semi-major axis 227,939,100 km

1.523 679 AU

Eccentricity 0.093 315
Orbital period 686.971 day

1.8808 Julian years
668.5991 sols

Synodic period 779.96 day

2.135 Julian years

Average orbital speed 24.077 km/s
Inclination 1.850° to ecliptic
5.65° to Sun's equator
1.67° to invariable plane[2]
Longitude of ascending node 49.562°
Argument of perihelion 286.537°
Satellites 2
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 3,396.2 ± 0.1 kmTemplate:Ref label[3]

0.533 Earths

Polar radius 3,376.2 ± 0.1 kmTemplate:Ref label[3]

0.531 Earths

Flattening 0.005 89 ± 0.000 15
Surface area 144,798,500 km²

0.284 Earths

Volume 1.6318Template:E km³

0.151 Earths

Mass 6.4185Template:E kg

0.107 Earths

Mean density 3.934 g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 3.69 m/s²

0.376 g

Escape velocity 5.027 km/s
Sidereal rotation period 1.025 957 day
24.622 96 h[4]
Rotation velocity at equator Template:Convert/km/h
Axial tilt 25.19°
Right ascension of North pole 21 h 10 min 44 s

317.681 43°

Declination of North pole 52.886 50°
Albedo 0.15 (geometric) or 0.25 (bond)
Surface temperature:
   Kelvin
   Celsius
min mean max
186 K 227 K 268 K[4]
−87 °C −46 °C −5 °C
Apparent magnitude +1.8 to −2.91
Angular size 3.5—25.1"
Adjectives Martian
Atmosphere
Surface pressure 0.6–1.0 kPa
Composition 95.72% Carbon dioxide

2.7% Nitrogen
1.6% Argon
0.2% Oxygen
0.07% Carbon monoxide
0.03% Water vapor
0.01% Nitric oxide
2.5 ppm Neon
300 ppb Krypton
130 ppb Formaldehyde
80 ppb Xenon
30 ppb Ozone
10 ppb Methane

Mangalgrah (Mars), Solar System me Suraj se duur chutha planet hae. English me iske naam, Mars, Roman ke yudh kare waala bhagwaan ke naam se aais hae kahe ki iske rang laal hae jonki khuun ke rang hae.

Dekhe me ii kaise lage hae[badlo | edit source]

Surface with rocks everywhere photographed by Mars Pathfinder

Mars ke lage dui chhota chhota chandarma hae, jiske naam Phobos aur Deimos hae. Ii planet me jaada kar ke patthar hae. Iske matti laal hae kahe ki hian pe dher iron oxide (murcha) hae.[5] Ii planet me thorra se carbon dioxide ke atmosphere hae. Mangalgrah ke temperature dunia se aur jaada thanda hae, kahe ki ii Suraj se aur duur har. Mangalgrah ke north aur south pole me ice aur frozen carbon dioxide hae. Mars me paani nai hae, poles ke alawa, lekin scientist log ii soche hae ki hian pe pahile paani rahaa.

Mangalgrah ke Itihaas[badlo | edit source]

Mangalgrah ke baare me purana jamana se jaana jaawe hae. Greek log ii planet ke Ares bolat rahin, lekin jab Roman log raj kare lagin tab uu logan iske naam ke badal ke Mars kar diin.

Ii planet ke chapa banae me pahila kaam Giovanni Schiaparelli karis rahaa. Ii jon kuchh aapan duurbin se dekhis rahaa uske confuse kar diis kahe ki uu canal ke jiske paani ke khatir khoda gias rahaa, ke dekhis. Iske kaaran log ii soche lagin ki Mangalgrah me janwar aur alien rahe hae. Aajkal ii planet me rocket bheje ke kaaran ham log ii jantaa hae ki ii planet me koi janwar nai hae.

References[badlo | edit source]

  1. Yeomans, Donald K. (2006-07-13). "HORIZONS System". NASA JPL. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons. Retrieved 2007-08-08.—At the site, go to the "web interface" then select "Ephemeris Type: ELEMENTS", "Target Body: Mars" and "Center: Sun".
  2. "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. Archived from the original on 2009-04-20. http://web.archive.org/20090420194536/home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-10. (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also invariable plane)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, B. A.; A'hearn, M. F.; et al. (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 98 (3): 155–180. Template:Citation error. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/doi/10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Mars: Facts & Figures". NASA. http://solarsystem.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mars&Display=Facts&System=Metric. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
  5. "NASA Mars Page". Volcanology of Mars (Retrieved via the Internet Archive). http://web.archive.org/web/20080106181124/http://erc.arc.nasa.gov/MarsVolc/basalt.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-13.

Duusra websites[badlo | edit source]