Athens

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Athens (Αθήνα)
Athens me Parthenon
Athens me Parthenon
Athens ke location
Athens ke location
Country Greece
Periphery Attica
Prefecture Athens
Government  
 - Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis
Area  
 - City 38.96 km²  (15 sq mi)
 - Metro 411.72 km² (159 sq mi)
Elevation 70 - 338 m  (230 - 1109 ft)
Time zone Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
 - Summer Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Postal code 10x xx, 11x xx, 120 xx
Website: [http://www.cityofathens.gr

Athens, Greece ke capital city hae. Ii dunia ke ek sab se jaada jaana maana city hae. Ii city ke naam Athena se aais hae, jon ki Greek mythology me goddess of war aur wisdom hae. Athens ke abaadi tiin million log se jaada hae.

Athens ke itihaas[badlo | edit source]

Greece ke attica jagah me bahut pahile se basti hae lekin ii nai jaana jaawe hae ki kab usme se ek apne ke Athens bole lagaa. Plato ke writing me Greece ke naam ke 9600 BC se batawa jaawe hae.

Jagha[badlo | edit source]

View of the Attica Basin from space.

Athens, Attica ke central plains me hae, jiske west me Mount Aegaleo, north me Mount Parnitha, northeast me Mount Penteli aur east me Mount Hymettus hae.[1] Athens kuchh pahaarr pe banaa hae. is built around a number of hills. Lycabettus is one of the tallest hills of the city proper and provides a view of the entire Attica Basin. The geomorphology of Athens is deemed to be one of the most complex in the world due to its mountains and causes a temperature inversion phenomenon which, along with the failure of the Greek Government to control industrial pollution, is responsible for the air pollution problems the city has recently faced.[2][3] This issue is not characteristic of Athens alone; for intsance, Los Angeles and Mexico City also suffer from similar geomorphology inversion problems.[2]

Mausam[badlo | edit source]

Athens ke mausam ke khaas feature iihae ki hian pe chaahe lambaa, jhuura summer nai ti saadharan, bhija winter rahe hae.[4] Hian pe saal bhar ke barsaat ke biich waala aankrraa (average) 414.1 millimetres (Template:Rndnear in) hae, jon ki jaada kar ke October aur april ke mahina ke biich me gire hae. July aur August sab se jhuura mahina hae, jab ke baadal, mahina me khaali ek nai to dui time garrje hae. Winters, kuchh thanda rahe hae aur paani barse hae, aur January ke average 8.9 °C (Template:Convert/LoffT) hae; Nea Filadelfeia me aur10.3 °C (Template:Convert/LoffT) Hellinikonme. Hian pe barf bahut kamtii gire hae, lekin jab ii gire hae tab logan ke rahan sahan me bahut baadha pahunche hae. .[5]

Mount Parnitha, AThens ke uppar ek rainshadow bichhae he, jiske kaaran hian pe paani, des ke dusra jagha se kamtii rahe hae. July me sab se jaada average garmi 33.5 °C (Template:Convert/LoffT) Nea Filadelfeia weather station me naapa gais hae, lekin city ke aur duusra jagha aur jaada garam rahe hae, jaada kar ke city ke western hissa jahaan pe dher industry hae. [6][7][8] Athens ke temperatures city's ke heatwaves ke time 38 °C (Template:Convert/LoffT) se jaada rahe hae.[1][9]

Athens city me urban heat island ke bhi asar rahe hae jiske kaaran insaan ke kartutu hae,[10][11] altering its temperatures compared to the surrounding rural areas,[12][13][14][15] that has detrimental effects on energy usage, expenditure for cooling,[16][17] and health.[11] The urban heat island of the city has been found partially responsible also for alterations of the climatological temperature time-series of specific Athens meteorological stations due to its impact on the temperatures and the temperatures trends recorded by some meteorological stations.[18][19][20][21][22] On the other hand specific meteorological stations such as the National Garden station and Thiseio meteorological station are less affected or do not experience the urban heat island[12][23]

Athens holds the World Meteorological Organisation record for the highest temperature ever being recorded in Europe of 48.0 °C (Template:Convert/LoffT) which was recorded in Elefsina and Tatoi suburbs of Athens on 10 July 1977.[24]

Below are the meteorological data for the northern suburb of Nea Filadelfeia

Climate data for Athens
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

}}}|1|2|1}}}}}}}|12.5
(54.5)}}

13.5
(56.3)
15.7
(60.3)
20.2
(68.4)
26.0
(78.8)
31.1
(88)
33.5
(92.3)
33.2
(91.8)
29.2
(84.6)
23.3
(73.9)
18.1
(64.6)
14.1
(57.4)
22.5
(72.5)|#default=Error: This template makes a table line with two values that are not dependent on the length of month, to specify temperature add the |sc=t parameter.}}

}}}|1|2|1}}}}}}}|8.9
(48)}}

9.5
(49.1)
11.2
(52.2)
14.9
(58.8)
20.0
(68)
24.7
(76.5)
27.2
(81)
27.0
(80.6)
23.3
(73.9)
18.4
(65.1)
14.0
(57.2)
10.5
(50.9)
17.4
(63.3)|#default=Error: This template makes a table line with two values that are not dependent on the length of month, to specify temperature add the |sc=t parameter.}}

}}}|1|2|1}}}}}}}|5.2
(41.4)}}

5.4
(41.7)
6.7
(44.1)
9.6
(49.3)
13.9
(57)
18.2
(64.8)
20.8
(69.4)
20.7
(69.3)
17.3
(63.1)
13.4
(56.1)
9.8
(49.6)
6.8
(44.2)
12.3
(54.1)|#default=Error: This template makes a table line with two values that are not dependent on the length of month, to specify temperature add the |sc=t parameter.}}

Template:Infobox weather/line/date Template:Infobox weather/oneline/date Template:Infobox weather/oneline/date

Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN),[25] Hong Kong Observatory[26] for data of sunshine hours

Ghatna[badlo | edit source]

  • 1896 - Olympic Games
  • 2004 - Olympic Games

Chapa ke gallery[badlo | edit source]

References[badlo | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Focus on Athens". UHI Quarterly Newsletter, Issue 1, May 2009, page 2. www.urbanheatisland.info. http://www.urbanheatisland.info/images/newsletter/UHI_newsletter_Issue_1.pdf. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Tung, Anthony (2001). "The City the Gods Besieged". Preserving the World's Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York: Three Rivers Press. p. 266. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.
  3. "Daily Report on Air Pollution Levels". Hellenic Ministry of the Environment and Public Works. www.minenv.gr. http://www.minenv.gr/1/12/122/12204/e1220400.html. Retrieved 26 January 2007.
  4. Founda D. (2011). "Evolution of the air temperature in Athens and evidence of climatic change: A review". Advances in Bulding Energy Research, 5,1, 7-41, http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/earthscan/aber/2011/00000005/00000001/art00001.
  5. visited may 6, 2011
  6. Κωνσταντίνος Μαυρογιάννης, Αθήναι (1981).Παρατηρήσεις επί του κλίματος των Αθηνών και της ενεργείας αυτού επί της ζωϊκής οικονομίας σελ 29.
  7. http://www.eib.org/attachments/pipeline/20090584_eia_el.pdf
  8. Giannopoulou K., Livada I., Santamouris M., Saliari M., Assimakopoulos M., Caouris Y.G. (2011). "On the characteristics of the summer urban heat island in Athens, Greece". Sustainable Cities and Society, 1, pp. 16-28.
  9. "European Space Agency to help Athens become bearable in summer". http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/08/29/esa.helps.make.summer.city.more.bearable. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  10. Giannakopoulos C., Hatzai M., Kostopoulou E., McCarty M., Goodess C. (2010). "The impact of climate change and urban heat islands on the occurrence of extreme events in cities. The Athens case". Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, Patras, Greece, May 25th–28th, 2010, pp. 745–752.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "European Space Agency ESA helps make summer in the city more bearable". http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/08/29/esa.helps.make.summer.city.more.bearable. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Katsoulis B.D., Theoharatos G.A. (1985). "Indications of the Urban Heat Island in Athens, Greece". Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 24, Issue 12, pp.1296–1302
  13. Stathopoulou M., Cartalis C., Andritsos A. (2005)."Assessing the thermal environment of major cities in Greece". International Conference "Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment", May 2005, Santorini, Greece, pp. 108–112.
  14. Kassomenos P.A. and Katsoulis B.D. (2006). "Mesoscale and macroscale aspects of the morning Urban Heat Island around Athens, Greese", Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 94, pp. 209–218.
  15. Santamouris M., Papanikolaou N., Livada I., Koronakis I., Georgakis A., Assimakopoulos D.N. (2001). "On the impact of urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings". Solar Energy, 70 (3): pp. 201–216.
  16. Santamouris M. (1997). "Passive Cooling and Urban Layout". Interim Report, POLIS Research Project, European Commission, Directorate General for Science, Research and Development.> and human wellbeing and health.
  17. Santamouris M., Papanikolaou I., Livada I., Koronakis C., Georgakis C, Assimakopoulos D.N. (2001). "On the impact of Urban Climate to the Energy Consumption of Buildings". Solar Energy, 70, 3, pp. 201–216.
  18. Katsoulis B. (1987). "Indications of change of climate from the Analysis of air temperature time series in Athens, Greece". Climatic Change, 10, 1, pp- 67–79.
  19. Repapis C. C, Metaxas D. A. (1985). "The Possible influence of the urbanization in Athens city on the air temperature climatic fluctuations at the National Observatory". Proc. of the 3rd Hellenic-British Climatological Congress, Athens, Greece 17–21 April 1985, pp.188–195.
  20. Philandras C.M, Metaxas D.A., Nastos P.T. (1999). "Climate variability and Urbanization in Athens". Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 63, Issue 1–2, pp.65–72.
  21. Philandras C.M, Nastos P.T. (2002). "The Athens urban effect on the air temperature time series of the National Observatory of Athens and New Philadelphia stations". Proc. of the 6th Hellenic Conference on Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, Ioannina Greece, 25–28 September 2002, pp.501–506.
  22. Repapis C.C., Philandras C.M., Kalabokas P.D., Zerefos C.S. (2007). "Is the last years abrupt warming in the National Observatory of Athens records a Climate Change Manifestation?". Global NEST Journal, Vol 9, No 2, pp. 107–116.
  23. Livada I., Santamouris M., Niachou K., Papanikolaou N., Mihalakakou G. (2002). "Determination of places in the great Athens area where the heat island effect is observed". Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 71, Numbers 3–4, 219–230.
  24. "Europe's highest temperature". http://wmo.asu.edu/europe-highest-temperature. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
  25. "Weather Information for Athens". http://www.worldweather.org/063/c00177.htm.
  26. "Climatological Information for Athens, Greece" – Hong Kong Observatory

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