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Aristotle

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Western philosophy
Ancient philosophy
Marble bust of Aristotle. Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippus c. 330 BC. The alabaster mantle is modern

Name

(Ἀριστοτέλης), Aristotélēs

Birth

384 BC
Stageira, Chalcidice

Death

322 BC
Euboea

School/tradition

Peripatetic school
Aristotelianism

Main interests

Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theatre, Music, Rhetoric, Politics, Government, Ethics, Biology, Zoology

Notable ideas

Golden mean, Reason, Logi], Passion

Influences

Parmenides, Socrates, Plato, Heraclitus, Democritus

Influenced

Alexander the Great, Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and most of Islamic philosophy, Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, Western philosophy, science and more....

Aristotle (Greek Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs) (janam 384 BC Stagira, Macedonia, Greece; maut 7 March, 323 BC Chalicis, Euboea, Greece) ek Greek philosopher rahaa. Bahut log ii soche hae ki Plato ke saathe, uu Western dunia ke ek khaas philosopher rahaa. Ii bataawa jaawe hae ki Aristotle 150 book likhis hae. Aristotle, Alexander the Great ke bajpan ke guru rahaa.

Jindagi[badlo | source ke badlo]

Aristotle ke pitaji, Nicomachus, Macedonia ke Amyntas Raja ke doctor rahaa. Aapan 18th janam din se lae ke 37th janam din talak Aristotle Athens me rahaa, jahaan pe uu Plato ke student rahaa. Lagbhag 18 saal ke umar me uu Athens gais aur Plato ke Academy me parrhe lagaa. Hian pe uu lagbhag 20 saal talak rahaa aur 347 BC me, jab Plato ke maut bhais, tab uu ii jagha ke chhorris.

Iske baad uu Xenocrates ke saathe Asia Minor gais. Jab uu Asia me rahaa tab uu Theophrastus ke saathe Lesbos gais jahan pe uu log ii island ke botany aur zoology adhyan karin, Hermias ke maut ke baad, Aristotle ke Macdonia ke Philip II uske larrka Alexander the Great ke parrhae ke 343 B.C. me suruu karis.

Aristotle ke Royal Academy of macedon ke mukhia banaawa gais rahaa. Aristotle ke Macedonian court me rahe ke time uu khaali Alexander nai, lekin aage hoe waala raja, Ptolemy aur Cassander ke bhi parrhais rahaa. Aristotle, Alexander ke Persia ke aapan niche kare ke encourage rahaa. 335 BCme Aristotle Athens laut aais aur uu Lyceum me ek library banais jisme uu dher sau "papyrus scroll" ke kitaab banais. Uu aapan school banais aur 12 saal talak huan pe parrhais. Athens me Aristotle ke aurat marr gais aur uu duusra aurat rakkhais aur uske ek larrka, Nicomachus paaida bhais.

335 aur 323 BC me jab uu Athens me rahaa tab uu aapan khaas kaam karis aur treatise likhis. Uske khaas treatises rahaa Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul aue Poetics. Aristotle adyan karis aur khaas yogdaan logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, kheti, medicine, dance aur theatre me diis rahaa.

Uske jindagi ke aakhri din talak Alexander aur Aristotle ke biich me batbhed hoe gais kaaheki Aristotle, Alexander ke Persians se sambandh uske pasand nai rahaa. Bahut jane Aristotle ke Alexander ke maut ke jimewaar bataae hae lekin iske kuchh sabuut nai hae. Alexander ke maut ke baad Athens me Macedonian ke virod me hoe gain aur Aristotle ke uske maiyaa ke palwaar ke estate me bhaag ke rahe ke parraa rahaa.

Aristotle ke paanch elements[badlo | source ke badlo]

Aapan kitaab, On Generation and Corruption, me Aristotle chaar element, dunia, paani, [[hawaa], aur aagi jiske Empedocles pahile propose karis rahaa ke chaar me se dui "sensible qualities", garam, thandaa, bhiijaa aur suukha me karis rahaa. Empedoclean ke raae me sab "matter" chaar element se banaa hae, different proportion me. Aristotle, ek aur "heavenly" aether, jon ki taara aur planet ke jorris.

Aristotle ke elements[1]
Element Garam/Thandaa Bhijaa/Suukha Motion Aadhmik state
of matter
Dunia Thandaa Suukha Down Karraa
paani Cold Wet Down Ras
Hawaa Garam Bhiija Up Gas
Aagi Garam suukha Up Plasma
Aether (divine
substance)
Circular
(in heavens)
Vacuum

Duusra websites[badlo | source ke badlo]

  1. Lloyd 1968, pp. 133–139, 166–169.