Portal:Girmit

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Girmit

LeonidasShip.jpg
ElbeShip.jpg

1879 aur 1916 ke biich me 40 jahaaj girmitya logan ke lae ke India se Fiji 87 dafe aais. Ii sab jahaaj me se 27 paal waala (sailing) jahaaj rahaa aur 13 bhaap (steam) jahaaj rahaa. Suruu me ii sab jahaaj Calcutta se khali girmitya logan ke laat raha lekin 1903 se Madras se be girmitya logan aae ke suruu kar din. Kul jorr 60,965 girmitya log India chorrin lekin khali 60,553 (jisme samundar my paidaish bhi jorraa gae hai) Fiji pahuchin. 45,439 girmitya Calcutta me jahaaj pe charrin aur 15,114 girmitya Madras me charrin. Paal waala jahaaj ke Fiji pahuche , average me, 73 roj lagat rahaa, lekin bhaap waala jahaaj ke khali 30 din lagat rahaa. Jahaaj waala Company ke naam rahaa: Nourse Line aur British-India Steam Navigation Company.

Girmit ke baare me aap ketna jantaa hai

Girmit ke timeline

  • 18 January 1826Indian Ocean ke French Island Réunion ke sarkar Hindustani majdur ke huan pe laawe ke khatir kanun banais, jiske niche majdur paanch saal ke contract ke sign kare ke time ii maanat rahaa ki uu khusi se huan pe jaawe hae aur uske har mahina aath rupia aur khana milii.
  • 1 August 1834 – Hindustani majdur ke Mauritius, girmit ke niche lae jaae ke suruu karaa gais, lekin Mauritius me pahila Hindustani jaheli rahin jiske 1816 se construction industry me kaam me lawa jaawat rahaa.
  • 1837 – Colonial British Indian Government kanun banais jiske niche Hindustani majdur logan ke Calcutta se bahaar des bheja jaawe sake. Baad me yahi kanun Madras aur Bombay khatir bhi banaa.
  • 5 May 1838 – Pahila jahaaj Hindustani girmitya logan ke lae ke Guyana pahuncha.
  • 29 May 1839 – Hindustani majdur ke duusra des bheje pe sarkar rukawat lagae diis, kahe ki uu logan ke duusra des me bahut satawa jaawat rahaa.
  • 2 December 1842 – East India Company ke sarkar, businessmen aur planters ke dabao kae kaaran, fir se Calcutta, Bombay aur Madras se Hindustani majdur ke Mauritius bheje ke ijajat diis.
  • 16 November 1844– Hindustani majdur ke Jamaica, Trinidad aur Demerara (Guyana) bheje ke kanuni kar dewa gais.
  • 30 May 1845 – Pahila jahaaj, Fatel Razack, Hindustani majdur logan ke lae keTrinidad aais.
  • 1848 – West Indies ke chini ke industry me bawaal ke kaaran, Hindustani majdur ke huan bheje ke band kar dewa gais.
  • 1851Demerara me fir se Hindustani majdur ke bheja jaae laga.
  • 1853Martinique (French West Indies) me Hindustani majdur ke bheje ke suruu karaa gais.
  • 1854Guadeloupe (French West Indies) me Hindustani majdur ke bheje ke suruu karaa gais.
  • 1860Jamaica me fir se Hindustani majdur ke bheja jaae laga.
  • 16 November 1860Lala Rookh pahila jahaaj rahaa jon ki 342 majdur logan ke lae ke, India se South Africa laais rahaa.
  • 5 June 1873S. S. Truro jahaaj, 452 majdur logan ke lae ke, pahila jahaaj rahaa jon ki girmitya logan ke India se Suriname laais rahaa.


Girmit ke baare me book

  • John Wear Burton, The Fiji of Today, C.H. Kelly, London, 1910
  • Totaram Sanadhya, Fiji Dwip Men Ikkis Varsh, Kanpur, India, 1914
  • C. W. Andrews & W. W. Pearson, Indian Indentured Labour in Fiji, Perth, 1918
  • K. L. Gillion, Fiji's Indian Migrants: A history to the end of indenture in 1920, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1962
  • Adrian C. Mayer, Indians in Fiji, Oxford University Press, London, 1963
  • Hugh Tinker, A New System of Slavery: The export of Indian labour overseas 1830 - 1920, Oxford University Press, London, 1974
  • Shiu Prasad, Indian Indentured Workers in Fiji, South Pacific Social Sciences Association, Suva, 1974
  • A. Harold Wood, Overseas Missions of the Australian Methodist Church: Volume III - Fiji-Indian and Rotuma, Aldersgate Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1978.
  • Vijay Naidu, The violence of indenture in Fiji, Suva, 1979
  • Ahmed Ali, Plantation to Politics: Studies of Fiji Indians, University of the South Pacific, 1980
  • Brij V. Lal, Girmityas: The origins of the Fiji Indians, Journal of Pacific History, Canberra, 1983
  • Michael Moynagh, Brown or white? a history of the Fiji sugar industry, 1873-1973, Australian National University, Canberra, 1981.
  • Brij V. Lal, Chalo Jahaji: on a journey through indenture in Fiji, Australian National University, Canberra, 2000
  • Ahmed Ali, Girmit: Indian Indenture Experience in Fiji, Fiji Museum, Suva, 2004
  • Children of the Indus, National Farmers Union, Suva, 2004

Dunia ke sab des jahan pe girmit rahaa

Girmit ke virod kare waala log

Aaj ke quote

I should be willing to adopt any measure to favour the transfer of labourers from British India to Guiana ... I am not prepared to encounter the responsibility of a measure which may lead to a dreadful loss of life on the one hand, or, on the other, to a new system of slavery.

Lord John Russell (15 February 1840)

Girmit waala jahaaj ke suchi

  1. Leonidas - 15 May 1879
  2. Berar - 29 June 1882
  3. Poonah I - 17 September 1882
  4. Poonah II - 19 June 1883
  5. Bayard - 20 August 1883
  6. Syria - 14 May 1884
  7. Howrah - 26 June 1884
  8. Pericles - 3 July 1884
  9. S.S. Newnham - 23 July 1884
  10. Main - 30 April 1885
  11. Ganges I - 27 June 1885
  12. Boyne - 26 April 1886
  13. Bruce - 21 May 1886
  14. Hereford I - 24 April 1888
  15. Moy I - 3 May 1889
  16. Rhone I - 15 May 1890
  17. Allanshaw - 17 June 1890
  18. Danube - 15 June 1891
  19. Jumna I - 27 June 1891
  20. British Peer - 23 April 1892
  21. Avon I - 5 May 1892
  22. Hereford II - 15 June 1892
  23. Moy II - 14 April 1893
  24. Jumna II - 23 May 1893
  25. Ems I - 20 April 1894
  26. Hereford III - 28 June 1894
  27. S.S. Vadala - 26 March 1895
  28. S.S. Virawa I - 26 April 1895
  29. Erne - 24 April 1896
  30. Elbe I - 13 June 1896
  31. Rhone II - 11 May 1897
  32. Clyde - 1 June 1897
  33. Moy III - 1 June 1898
  34. Avon II - 25 July 1899
  35. Ganges II - 3 September 1899
  36. Ganges III - 21 June 1900
  37. Elbe II - 26 July 1900
  38. Arno I - 23 July 1900
  39. Rhine - 30 August 1900
  40. S.S. Fazilka I - 28 March 1901
  41. S.S. Fultala I - 12 May 1901
  42. S.S. Fazilka II - 18 June 1901
  43. S.S. Virawa II - 26 April 1902
  44. S.S. Fazilka III - 20 June 1902
  45. Mersey - 13 June 1903
  46. Elbe III - 5 August 1903
  47. Arno II - 4 September 1903
  48. Arno III - 3 May 1904
  49. Ems II - 30 July 1904
  50. S.S. Fultala II - 10 April 1905
  51. S.S. Virawa III - 17 July 1905
  52. S.S. Wardha I - 28 July 1905
  53. S.S. Fultala III - 17 August 1905
  54. S.S. Fazilka IV - 17 April 1906
  55. S.S. Fultala IV - 28 April 1906
  56. S.S. Wardha II - 28 June 1906
  57. S.S. Fazilka V - 28 January 1907
  58. S.S. Virawa IV - 23 March 1907
  59. S.S. Fazilka VI - 25 April 1907
  60. S.S. Sangola I - 18 March 1908
  61. S.S. Sangola II - 6 June 1908
  62. S.S. Sangola III - 1 February 1909
  63. S.S. Sangola IV - 21 April 1909
  64. S.S. Sangola V - 7 March 1910
  65. S.S. Santhia I - 22 April 1910
  66. S.S. Sangola VI - 5 June 1910
  67. S.S. Santhia II - 8 July 1910
  68. S.S. Mutlah I - 22 May 1911
  69. S.S. Sutlej I - 25 June 1911
  70. S.S. Ganges I - 22 July 1911
  71. S.S. Mutlah II - 18 August 1911
  72. S.S. Sutlej II - 4 October 1911
  73. S.S. Sutlej III - 27 April 1912
  74. S.S. Indus - 8 June 1912
  75. S.S. Ganges II - 18 July 1912
  76. S.S. Ganges III - 8 November 1912
  77. S.S. Ganges IV - 21 February 1913
  78. S.S. Sutlej IV - 11 April 1913
  79. S.S. Ganges V - 29 May 1913
  80. S.S. Ganges VI - 9 September 1913
  81. S.S. Chenab I - 24 March 1914
  82. S.S. Chenab II - 16 June 1914
  83. S.S. Mutlah III - 7 May 1915
  84. S.S. Ganges VII - 21 June 1915
  85. S.S. Mutlah IV - 1 August 1915
  86. S.S. Chenab III - 1 September 1916
  87. S.S. Sutlej V - 11 November 1916

Aaj ke featured chapa

Choraiya Choraiya (Scientific naam: Amaranthus viridis, English: Slender Amaranth, Green Amaranth, Pigweed, Prince of Wales feather, Kaiviti: moca, ndriti, ngasau ni vuaka, tubua, tumbua) ek rakam ke bhaji hai jiske Fiji ke Hindustani log khaae hai. Ii garam des me hoe hai.


Pahile ke featured article: KarelaMainaNaura