France

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Hian jaao: navigation, khojo
République française
Flag Coat of arms
Jhanda Coat of arms
Des ke jaankari
Des ke motto: Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood
(French: Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité)
National anthem: La Marseillaise
Log ke baare me
Official bhasa: French
Population:
  - Total: {{{populationtotal}}}
Jagah
country map
Hian pe des ke dunia ke map me dekhawa jaawe hai.
Capital City: Paris
Sab se barraa City: Paris
Area
  - Total: 674,843 km² (ranked 40)
Politics / Government
Leader: President: Nicolas Sarkozy
Prime Minister: François Fillon
Economy / Money
Paisa ke naam: Euro (€)
International information
Time ke zone: +1
Summer: +2
Telephone ke dialing code: 33
Internet domain: .fr

France (French: France), jiske official naam French Republic (French: République française) hae, Europe ke ek des hae. Iske capital city Paris hae. France, European Union ke member hae. France ke iske monuments aur structures khatir jaise ki, Louvre, Eiffel Tower, Arc de Triomphe, Giverny, Versailles, aur Notre Dame hae. France ek des hae jiske régions aur départements me baata gais hae.

France, 17th century se one of the world's biggest powers hae. 18th aur 19th centuries me France, ek barraa colonial empire ke banais jon ki West Africa aur Southeast Asia me rahaa. France me sab se jaada tourist logan jaae hae aur hian pe har saal 82 million tourists jaawe hae.[1] France, European Union ke suruu kare waala pahila des me se ek rahaa aur iske land area European Union me sab se jaada hae. France, United Nations ke bhi founding member hae aur ii G8 aur NATO ke bhi member hae. Ii United Nations Security Council ke paanch permanent members me se ek hae. France, ek nuclear power hae aur iske lake active warheads aur nuclear power plants hae.

France ke kuch baraa city hae: Nice, Marseille, Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Toulouse, Strasbourg, Nantes aur Paris.

Geography[badlo | edit source]

France, Western Europe me hae. France ke merr (border) Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra, aur Spain se hae. France me dui pahaarr hae jiske naam hae the Alps aur Pyrenees. France me dher naddi hae, jaise ki Seine aur Loire. France ke north aur west me chota pahaarr aur naddi ke valley hae. France me dher rakam ke mausam rahe hae. Atlantic north and west ke mausam ke bahut affect kare hae. Iske matlab ii hae ki temperature sab time lg hag ek rakam rahe hae. East me winter bahut thanda rhae hae. Summer me bahut garam rahe aur tuufan bhi aae hae. South me summer me garam aur jhuura rahe hae aur winter me thanda aur bhiija rahe hae.

History[badlo | edit source]

"France" ke naam Latin Francia se aais hae, jiske matlab hae "land of the Franks" nai to "Frankland".

France ke abhi ke border purana Gaul ke border ke rakam hae. Purana Gaul me Celtic Gauls log rahat rahin. Gaul ke 1st century BC me Rome, jiske leader Julius Caesar rahaa, capture kar liis rahaa. Dhire dhire, Eventually, Gauls log Roman bhasa (Latin, jisme se French bhasa aais hae) aur Roman ke rahan. Christianity 2nd aur 3rd century me France me faila aur fourth aur fifth century me ekdam tagrraa hoe gais.

France in 1477. Red line: Limit of the Kingdom of France; Light blue: the royal domain

4th century AD, me Germanic tribes, jisme jaada kar ke Franks rahin Gaul ke invade kar diin aur ii rakam se france ke naam milaa. Abhi ke “France” ke naam Capetian France ke Raja logan jon ki Paris ke rahin, se aais hae. Roman Empire ke gire ke baad, Franks logan Europe ke pahila tribe rahin jon ki Catholic Christianity banin. French logan apne aap ke “the Most Christian Kingdom of France” bole hae.

Treaty of Verdun (843), Charlemagne ke Empire ke tiin bhaag me baat diis. Isme se sab se baraa Western Francia rahaa jisme se modern France aais hae.

Carolingian dynasty 987 France me raj karis, jab Hugh Capet, France ke Raja banaa. Uske descendants, logan Capetian dynasty, House of Valois aur House of Bourbon, bahut din ke larrai ke baad des ke unite kar diis. 17th century aur Louis XIV of France ke raj me ii log bahut tagatwar rahin. Uu time France me Europe ke sab se jaada abaadi rahaa. Ii des European politics, economy, aur culture ke bahut influence karis. French diplomacy ke khaas bhasa banaa. Enlightenment bhi jaada kar ke France me bhaes. 18th century me France ke scientist logan bhi bahut kuch discover karin. France, Americas, Africa aur Asia me dher colony bhi establish karis.

1789 talak, jab French Revolution bhaes, France ek monarchy rahaa. King Louis XVI aur uske aurat, Marie Antoinette, ke 1793 me maardewa gais. 1799 me Napoleon Bonaparte Republic ke take over karis. Baad me uu apne aap ke Emperor of the First Empire (1804–1814) banais. Uske army jaada continental Europe ke conquer kar liis rahaa.

1815 me Battle of Waterloo me Napoleon ke aakhri haar ke baad French monarchy ke fir se suruu karaa gais. Baad me, 1852 me, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Second Empire banais. 1870 me Franco-Prussian war ke baand me Louis-Napoléon ke hatae dewa gais aur Third Republic suruu karaa gais.

18th and 19th centuries me France ek barraa colonial empire banais. Ii empire me West Africa aur Southeast Asia ke bhaag rahaa. Ii sab jagah ke culture and politics France se influence bhaes hae. Dher phile ke ex-colonies abhi French language ke kaam me laawe hae.

Administrative divisions[badlo | edit source]

France ke (administrative) regions me baata gais hae jisme se 22 Metropolitan France me hae:

1. Alsace
2. Aquitaine
3. Auvergne
4. Basse-Normandie
5. Bourgogne
6. Bretagne
7. Centre (French region)
8. Champagne-Ardenne
9. Corse
10. Franche-Comté
11. Haute-Normandie

12. Île-de-France
13. Languedoc-Roussillon
14. Limousin
15. Lorraine
16. Midi-Pyrénées
17. Nord-Pas-de-Calais
18. Pays de la Loire
19. Picardie
20. Poitou-Charentes
21. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
22. Rhône-Alpes

FranceRegionsNumbered.png
Corsica ke alag ke status hae aur iske collectivité territoriale bola jaae hae.

France ke 4 overseas regions hae:

  1. Guadeloupe (in the Caribbean)
  2. French Guiana (in South America)
  3. Martinique (in the Caribbean)
  4. Réunion (in the Indian Ocean).

Ii chaar overseas regions ke hak metropolitan region ke rakam hae.

France ke 100 departments me baata gais hae. Ii departments ke 342 arrondissements me baata gais hae. arrondissements ke fir se 4,032 cantons me baata gais hae. Sab se chhota subdivision commune hae. 1 January 2008, me INSEE 36,781 communes ke gini jisme se 36,569 metropolitan France aur 212 overseas France me hae .[2][3] This is more than in any other European country.

Sarkar[badlo | edit source]

France ke sarkar semi-presidential system hae jaise ki French fifth Republic ke Constitution ke likha hae. Ii des apne ke "an indivisible, secular, democratic, aur social Republic" bole hae.


Military[badlo | edit source]

Nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle

France ke armed forces ke chaar branches me baata gais hae:

  • The Armée de Terre (Army)
  • The Marine Nationale (Navy)
  • The Armée de l'Air (Air Force)
  • The Gendarmerie Nationale (Ek military jon ki National Rural Police ke rakam rahe hae)

France me 359,000 military personnel hae.[4][5]. France, aapan GDP ke 2.6% defence pe kharchaa kare hae. Ii European Union me sab se jaada hae. France aur UK, EU 40% defence budget spend kare hae. France's ke defence budget ke 10% nuclear weapons me kharchaa karaa jaae hae.

Chapa ke gallery[badlo | edit source]

References[badlo | edit source]

Duusra websites[badlo | edit source]

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